- Dash at a Declared Enrichment Site
- Dash at a Covert Enrichment Site
- Cheating in Plain Sight
- A Parallel Program
- More effective legal mechanisms to stop Iran from acquiring key goods for its nuclear programs. A priority is China’s domestic enforcement of sanctions and trade controls;
- Better detection of Iran’s illicit procurement efforts and broader enforcement of legal mechanisms worldwide;
- Increased efforts in countries of transit concern to prevent Iran from transshipping banned goods;
- Stepped up operations to detect clandestine Iranian nuclear activities, including heightened intelligence operations inside Iran aimed at detecting secret nuclear sites and activities and encouraging defections of nuclear program “insiders”;
- Covert action to slow Iran’s nuclear program, particularly if the conflict transforms into a protracted Cold War style stand-off between Iran and several members of the international community; and,
- Increased economic and financial sanctions aimed at augmenting pressure, combined with an effort to displace Iranian oil exports.
- Cap all enrichment at the level of five percent;
- Freeze centrifuge installation at Qom (limit of two IR-1 centrifuge cascades);
- Limit the number of advanced centrifuges enriching uranium to fewer than 500 and limit deployment exclusively to the Natanz Pilot Fuel Enrichment Plant (PFEP); and
- Deposit all 19.75 percent LEU overseas.
- Provision of 19.75 percent LEU fuel for TRR, starting within one year of date of agreement;
- Provision of LEU targets for medical isotope production;
- Provision of medical isotopes of the type that the TRR would produce; and
- Commitment by P5+1 not to seek new U.N. Security Council sanctions for a defined period of time, contingent on implementation of agreement.
In the face of mounting financial pressure, the value of the Iranian rial has dropped sharply in recent weeks, and prices of food, consumer goods, and utilities have spiraled. Almost half of Iranians (48%) now say there were times in the past year when they did not have enough money to buy food their families needed, more than tripling the 15% who said so in 2005. Forty-eight percent also currently report there were times in the past year when they didn't have enough money to provide adequate housing for themselves or their families, up from 29% in 2005.
These economic ramifications may also be affecting Iranians' daily mood. A majority (55%) say they experienced worry for much of the previous day, up from 38% when Gallup last surveyed in Iran in February-March 2011. Similarly, almost half of Iranians (47%) say they felt angry during a lot of the previous day, compared with slightly more than one-third (35%) a year ago.
The following is an excerpt of President Obama’s statement on new U.S. sanctions on Iran’s Central Bank.
- Under the order, the Government of Iran, the Central Bank of Iran, and all Iranian financial institutions are now blocked (i.e. their assets within the jurisdiction of U.S. persons are frozen).
- The U.S. sanctions in place since 1995 have required most transactions involving the Government of Iran, the Central Bank of Iran and all Iranian financial institutions to be rejected – that is, they could not pass through the U.S. financial system, but instead were turned back. Under the new E.O., transactions involving the Government of Iran, the Central Bank of Iran and all Iranian financial institutions that previously would have been rejected will now be blocked.
- All entities that meet the existing definition of “Government of Iran,” such as Iranian ministries, state-owned entities and commercial firms owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, are blocked. This includes entities bearing the [IRAN] tag on the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control’s (OFAC) List of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (SDN List). Transactions by U.S. persons involving such entities are now blocked unless exempt or otherwise authorized. OFAC will continue to update the SDN List and may add, delete, or edit existing entries as appropriate.
- The E.O. does not change the sanctions that may be applied against foreign financial institutions engaging in arms-length transactions with certain Iranian financial institutions, including the Central Bank of Iran. Those foreign financial institutions remain at risk of U.S. sanctions if they engage in certain significant financial transactions with the Central Bank of Iran or certain other designated Iranian financial institutions pursuant to the NDAA, or the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (CISADA).
- Persons who currently use general or specific licenses from OFAC for transactions involving the Government of Iran or Iranian financial institutions should consult the OFAC website for new general licenses and other information on whether those transactions remain authorized under the new E.O.
- The E.O. delegates a number of other authorities provided in section 1245(d) of the NDAA, primarily to the Departments of the Treasury and State. These delegations will facilitate the implementation of section 1245 of the NDAA.
- Additional information describing the implementation of the NDAA under these delegated authorities will be made available in the near term.
To see the Fact Sheet on the Treasury Department's website, click here.
Click on the link to see the full text Executive Order - Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and Iranian Financial Institutions
In an energy brief for the Council on Foreign Relations, Robert McNally outlines four possible scenarios in “Managing Oil Market Disruption in a Confrontation with Iran.”
The Islamists Are Coming
The Islamists Are Coming, edited by Robin Wright, surveys the rise of Islamist groups in the wake of the Arab Spring. Often lumped together, the more than 50 Islamist parties with millions of followers now constitute a whole new spectrum—separate from either militants or secular parties. They will shape the new order in the world’s most volatile region more than any other political bloc. Yet they have diverse goals and different constituencies. Sometimes they are even rivals.
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