Dual Nationals and Foreigners Held in Iran

July 25, 2016
Updated

Several Iranians who also hold American, British, or Canadian citizenship or residency are now imprisoned in Iran. Several were picked up after the U.S.-Iran prisoner swap for five Americans or dual nationals in January 2016. Some have been accused of undermining national security or spreading propaganda against the state. Foreign nationals, including Americans, with no Iranian background have also been detained.

In October 2016, a court sentenced Iranian-American businessman Siamak Namazi and his elderly father Baquer to 10 years in person on charges of cooperating with the United States against Iran. Three other defendants were also reportedly convicted for collaboration and given similar sentences. Two were referred to by the initials F.H.A and A.A. The third was Nizar Zakka, a U.S. resident and Lebanese national (he was later released in 2019 after talks between Lebanese and Iranian officials). The State Department issued a statement in response.

President Rouhani discussed detainees in a September 2017 interview with CNN. He emphasized that the judiciary is independent and that his administration cannot interfere. But Rouhani seemed to imply that he has his own opinions. “I do have my own sensitivities vis a vis this issue,” he told Christiane Amanpour.

In his September 2017 address to the United Nations, President Trump raised the issue of detainees. "It is time for the regime to free all Americans and citizens of other nations that they have unjustly detained," he said. 

On April 25, 2017, Iran and six major world powers met to discuss implementation of the nuclear deal. On the sidelines, “the U.S. delegation the U.S. delegation raised with the Iranian delegation its serious concerns regarding the cases of U.S. citizens detained and missing in Iran, and called on Iran to immediately release these U.S. citizens so they can be reunited with their families,” according to the State Department. On July 21, the White House issued the following statement on detainees.

Statement on American Citizens Unjustly Detained in Iran

President Donald J. Trump and his Administration are redoubling efforts to bring home all Americans unjustly detained abroad. The United States condemns hostage takers and nations that continue to take hostages and detain our citizens without just cause or due process.

For nearly forty years, Iran has used detentions and hostage taking as a tool of state policy, a practice that continues to this day with the recent sentencing of Xiyue Wang to ten years in prison. Iran is responsible for the care and well-being of every United States citizen in its custody. President Trump urges Iran to return Robert Levinson home, who has been held for over 10 years, and demands Iran release Siamak and Baquer Namazi, who were taken during the Obama administration, along with all other American citizens unjustly detained by Iran. President Trump is prepared to impose new and serious consequences on Iran unless all unjustly imprisoned American citizens are released and returned.

 

On Nov. 1, 2017, the U.S. Senate passed a bipartisan resolution calling for the release of American prisoners. “For years the Iranian regime has brutally detained and imprisoned Americans and dual-nationals as a matter of policy, in an effort to leverage the freedom of our citizens for political concessions,” said Senator Ted Cruz (R-TX).

Iran’s Revolutionary Guards arrested at least 30 dual nationals from 2015 to 2017, 19 of whom had citizenship in Europe, according to a Reuters investigation. Western governments are limited in their ability to help their citizens because the Iranian government does not recognize dual citizenship. Dual U.S.-Iranian citizens are in a particularly difficult situation. The Swiss government serves as a protecting power for U.S. interests in Iran through its embassy. But the Iranian government will not allow the Swiss to provide protective services for U.S. citizens who are also Iranian nationals.

Hardliners dominate the judiciary, intelligence agencies and security services. President Hassan Rouhani has had limited impact on human rights issues since taking office.

In December 2018, six six families of dual and foreign nationals imprisoned in Iran published an open letter calling on the international community to take action on behalf of their loved ones. “We believe that the Iranian authorities have little incentive to end the cruel and horrific practice of hostage taking as a result of inadequate pressure from the international community. World leaders need to make the political cost for committing human rights violations so high that releasing our loved ones becomes advantageous to the Iranian authorities,” they wrote. 

 

On April 2, 2019, Secretary of State Pompeo hosted families of Americans held captive abroad. He reassured them that all parts of the U.S. government are doing their best to free their loved ones. “I must say that of all the places that all the government agencies work together, it is on this mission set where I find the most capability and people really focused on their mission, intelligence professionals working to help us rescue Americans alongside all of our diplomatic efforts,” he said. Pompeo also addressed the debate over U.S. refusal to pay ransom. “Indeed, we know that there are nations that take Americans less because there is less money coming from America. I’ve seen it; I’ve seen the information. It’s what’s happened after we paid the mullahs in Iran. I’ve seen this kind of activity. Please remember that any payment to a terrorist or a terrorist regime gives money so that they can seize more of our people,” he added. The following are profiles of dual nationals and foreigners that are being held or have gone missing in Iran.

On April 24, 2019, Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif publicly offered to exchange detainees with the United States. “We informed the government of the United States six months ago that we are ready,” he said at the Asia Society in New York. “Not a response yet. If they tell you anything else, they're lying.” Zarif alleged that Iranians have been detained in the United States, Europe and Australia for violating sanctions, some on extradition warrants. Zarif played a key role in arranging an exchange of American and Iranian detainees that coincided with the implementation of the nuclear deal in 2016.

In September 2019, Zarif discussed the possibility of an exchange in an interview with NPR. 

I would love to see him [Xiyue Wang] go back to his family and I have made proposals, last September, it is a year ago, that would enable him to go back. But let me also tell you about a professor who is in a U.S. prison for the last nine months without charge, without charge. He was given a visa to come to the United States. His visa was revoked while he was flying to the United States. He has not committed any crime. What should I say to the wife of this professor?

The Chinese-American in Iran is in jail on a charge on a court case. And I have offered to exchange them, because as foreign minister I cannot go to our court and simply tell them, ‘release this man.’ I can go to the court and tell them, ‘I can exchange this man for an Iranian,’ and then have a standing, have a legal standing in the court.
 

In September 2019, the families of detainees and former detainees formed an organization to combine efforts to free their loved ones. 

The Families Alliance is an alliance of families of hostages and former hostages, held in Iran and elsewhere, supported by subject matter experts. We have set up to increase recognition of the growing phenomenon of state hostage taking; to call on the international community to do more to protect people from these practices; and to ensure accountability for those perpetrating it.
 

The following are profiles of foreigners and dual-nationals held in Iran.

 

US flagU.S. Citizens and Residents

 

Michael White

U.S. Navy veteran Michael White, 46, from Imperial Beach, California was arrested on unspecified charges in late July 2018 while visiting his girlfriend in Iran. Michael arrived in Iran on July 9, 2018 and never made it onto his return flight, according to his mother, Joanne White. She last spoke with her on July 13 and filed a missing-person report when Michael did not return on his scheduled flight.

In December 2018, the State Department informed Joanne White that Michael was being held in an Iranian prison and that U.S. officials were seeking access to him through the Swiss embassy in Tehran, which has provided consular services for Americans since 1980. 

 

The State Department, in an email response to The New York Times, acknowledged their awareness of White’s detention and stated that they “have no higher priority than the safety and security of U.S. citizens abroad.” The State Department was unable to provide any additional information to the public due to privacy considerations. 

IranWire, a website run by Iranian journalists outside of Iran, first published information about White’s arrest on January 7. In an interview, Irvad Farhadi, a former Iranian prisoner turned cyber activist, claimed to have met Michael White in Vakilabad Prison in the city of Mashhad in October. Farhadi alleged that White was “suffering psychologically” and being held “alongside dangerous criminals.” 

On January 9, Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesperson Bahram Ghassemi confirmed White had been arrested “some time ago” in the Iranian city of Mashhad. But he dismissed claims that White was being held in “suboptimal conditions.” Ghassemi said that Iran had notified the United States, via the Swiss, about White in the days immediately following his arrest. Iran will “release the results of the investigations in due time,” he added. 

In an interview with CBS News, Joanne White explained that her son was in Iran visiting his girlfriend of “four or five years” whom he had met online, and that he had visited her “three or four times” in the past “without any issues.” In a January statement, family spokesperson Jonathan Franks further explained that “Michael traveled to Iran with a valid Iranian visa to visit a woman with whom he had fallen in love - his visits were solely for that purpose.” Franks stated that Michael spent much of his time in the Navy as a cook, left the Military about a decade ago, and recently worked as a commercial janitor. Franks asserted that Michael “is not now, nor has he ever been, a spy” and that White has “no part in the ongoing geopolitical dispute between the United States and Iran.” The family claims that Michael has been arbitrarily detained by Iranian authorities, rejecting any suspicion that he may have engaged in espionage. On February 24, Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister Hossein Panahiazar said that there were no “security or espionage issues on the table.”

Michael’s mother expressed grave concern for her son’s safety and physical well-being as a prisoner in Iran considering Michael’s long history of medical ailments including a cancerous neck tumor and acute asthma. Ms. White stated that prior to Michael’s last visit to Iran, he had undergone chemotherapy and radiation treatment for a neck tumor. 

On February 6, 2019, Swiss diplomats visited Mr. White at Vakilabad. Michael’s mother was updated on his conditions. “Over the past few weeks, I’ve learned that Mike was badly beaten when he was arrested and that he has been taken to court at least twice for proceedings in Farsi that he couldn’t understand. My son is not well. His health is deteriorating, and I want him back so I can get him the care he badly needs”, she said in a statement. White was not able to communicate directly with his family. The spokesman for Iran’s U.N. mission, Alireza Miryousefi, disputed those claims. He said Michael received all necessary medicine, was being “treated humanely” and was “in the best possible conditions.”

On March 11, Mashhad’s prosecutor said White had been sentenced, but he did not elaborate on the charges. An attorney for the family, Mark Zaid, later said that he was sentenced to two years in prison for allegedly insulting the supreme leader and 10 years for posting a private photograph on social media. Zaid said that he believed the sentences would run concurrently. 

 

Xiyue Wang

Princeton University graduate student Xiyue Wang was arrested on August 8, 2016 while conducting research in Iran on the administrative and cultural history of the late Qajar dynasty for his doctoral dissertation. Wang’s family and Princeton University had not previously released information about his arrest in the hope that he would be released.

 

Wang was born in China and is a naturalized American citizen. He studied in China as a child and for his first year of college. According to The Washington Post, he dropped out after securing a chance to study India before heading to the University of Washington in 2003. He studied Russian and Eurasia studies at Harvard University before working as a Princeton in Asia fellow at the law firm Orrick in Hong Kong in 2008. Wang also worked as a translator for the International Committee of Red Cross in Afghanistan. In 2013, he began his doctoral work at Princeton University.

On July 17, 2017, Wang was sentenced to 10 years in prison after being convicted of spying, according to Iran’s judiciary spokesman, Gholamhossein Mohseni Ejehi, and Iranian media. A U.S. citizen “was gathering intelligence and was directly guided by the U.S.,” Ejehi announced at a weekly press briefing on July 16. He noted the sentence could be appealed, but did not elaborate or reveal the individual’s name.

Mizan Online News Agency, however, identified Wang. In a report citing an anonymous source, Mizan alleged that Wang had been using his academic research as a cover and was working on a 4,500-page digital archive for “the world’s biggest anti-Iran spying organization.” The article said he infiltrated Iran’s national archive and gathered secret and top-secret intelligence for the U.S. State Department, the Harvard Kennedy School and the British Institute of Persian Studies.

State Department officials told journalists that they were aware of the reports about the dual national but that they would not detail efforts on this case or others for privacy reasons. “The Iranian regime continues to detain U.S. citizens and other foreigners on fabricated national-security-related changes," an official said.

Princeton University also issued a statement saying they were “very distressed by the charges brought against him in connection with his scholarly activities, and by his subsequent conviction and sentence.” Princeton has reportedly been working with Wang’s family, the U.S. government and lawyers to help secure his release.

In August 2017, Iranian authorities denied Wang’s appeal. “I am devastated that my husband’s appeal has been denied, and that he continues to be unjustly imprisoned in Iran on groundless accusations of espionage and collaboration with a hostile government against the Iranian state,” his wife, Hua Qu, said in a statement.

In a November 2017 interview with NBC, Qu stated her husband had attempted suicide and that his condition was “very desperate.” She also called on the Trump administration to work with the Iranian government to bring about his release.

On August 23, 2018,  the U.N. Working Group on Arbitrary Detention issued a statement calling on Iran to immediately release Wang. It said that Iran had “no legal basis for the arrest and detention” of Wang and that he had been wrongly accused of espionage. The Working Group obtained a response to the petition from the government of Iran. The Iranian response, however, failed to explain how Wang had cooperated with a foreign state against Iran’s government or “how Mr. Wang’s trial on espionage charges posed a national security threat so serious that it warranted a closed hearing.”

 

Siamak Namazi

Dubai-based businessman Siamak Namazi was reportedly arrested around Oct. 15, 2015. The detention of Crescent Petroleum’s head of strategic planning has not been officially confirmed, nor have any details regarding any charges brought against him. He was arrested just days before the Oct. 18, 2015 Adoption Day of the Iran nuclear deal. 

Namazi

Namazi is the son of a former governor of the oil-rich province of Khuzestan in western Iran, according to The Washington Post. His family came to the United States in 1983 when he was a boy. He became a U.S. citizen in 1993. After graduating from college, Namazi returned to Iran for military service, which is compulsory there. From 1994 to 1996, he worked as a duty officer with the Ministry of Housing and Urban Planning in Tehran.

In 1998, Namazi founded Future Alliance International, a Washington D.C.-based consulting company focused on the risk of doing business in Iran. He came to see Iranian-Americans as a potential asset to his home country. “The new generation must be made to feel that no matter how much time elapses they will be welcomed and treated with respect in the land of their parents,” he wrote in 1998 for The Iranian. He suggested that Iran’s recognition of dual citizenship would be a good first step. “Iranian-Americans are a formidable force in helping mend the bridge between Iran and the United States,” he stated in a 1999 co-authored paper.

Namazi later worked as Managing Director at a family consulting firm founded in Tehran that later moved to Dubai, the Atieh Group. In 2005, he was a public policy scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. He also did a stint at the National Endowment for Democracy in 2006. He then worked for a few different energy consulting groups in Dubai. In 2013, Namazi warned that sanctions unintentionally created shortages of life-saving medical supplies and drugs in Iran. He was General Manager of Access Consulting Group, a Dubai-based consultancy focused on energy, before moving on to his most recent position at Crescent Petroleum. Namazi holds degrees from the London Business School and from Rutgers and Tufts Universities.

On July 11, 2016, Tehran’s prosecutor announced that Namazi had been indicted but did not specify the charges. On October 17, the Mizan news agency, the judiciary news service, posted a video that appeared to show Namazi in the hours immediately following his arrest. The short clip was an anti-American montage that showed images of a captured American surveillance drone, Jason Rezaian (a dual-national journalist who was accused of spying for the United States), U.S. sailors kneeling before being detained by Iranian forces and more. 

On October 18, 2016, after being tried without access to a lawyer, Namazi was sentenced to 10 years in prison for collaborating with a foreign government. Five other defendants were also convicted and given similar sentences, including Siamak Namazi’s father Baquer. Namazi and his father are being held in Evin Prison by the IRGC.

Siamak Namazi’s brother Babak spoke out against the sentences, calling them unjust. “My father has been handed practically a death sentence,” Babak wrote. “Siamak’s only crime has been to speak out against the negative effects of sanctions.” Babak was referring to an Op-Ed essay Namazi wrote for The New York Times in 2013.

In April 2017, Namazi’s lawyer, Jared Genser, called on President Trump to secure the release of Namazi and his father. “If not resolved quickly, the Namazi cases could have an outsized impact on the trajectory of Iran-US relations because both men are in rapidly declining health,” Genser stated. “In our view, something happening to the Namazis would be devastating not just to one side, but to both sides.” “For either or both of the Namazi to die on President Trump’s watch would be a public and catastrophic failure of his negotiating skills.”

Siamak Namazi’s health has declined since his arrest following prolonged periods of interrogation and a hunger strike in 2016. In August 2017, a Tehran appeals court upheld the convictions of both Siamak and his father, Baquer. “The Namazis are innocent of the charges on which they were convicted and they are prisoners of conscience, detained in Iran because they are American citizens,” international counsel to the family, Jared Genser, said in a statement.

In September 2017, a U.N. panel of international legal experts reportedly concluded that the imprisonment of the Namazis was illegal and that they should be freed.

On August 26, 2018 the Tehran Appeals Court denied the appeals of Siamak and Baquer Namazi, upholding their convictions of collaborating with the U.S. government. The Namazis U.S.-based lawyer Jared Genser condemned the move as a “cruel and unjust decision” of the court. 

 

Baquer Namazi

Siamak Namazi’s then 80-year-old father, Baquer, was reportedly arrested on Feb. 22, 2016. A former provincial governor and UNICEF representative who worked in several countries such as Kenya, Somalia and Egypt with the majority of his work focused on aid toward women and children affected by war. Baquer Namazi most recently ran Hamyaran, an umbrella organization of a number of different Iranian NGOs.

Namazi’s arrest occurred soon after a prisoner swap between the United States and Iran that coincided with the implementation of the nuclear deal. He and his son have been denied access to their family’s lawyer. The elder Namazi has a serious heart condition, as well as a host of other medical conditions that require medical attention, according to his wife.

In February 2016, Secretary of State John Kerry told a Senate panel hearing that he was engaged on the issue of Namazi’s detention but could not comment due to privacy considerations.

In April 2016, judiciary spokesman Gholam Hossein Mohseni Ejehi suggested both Namazis could be swapped for Ahmad Sheikhzadeh— an Iranian consultant to the United Nations held in the United States on suspicion of tax and money laundering charges for helping violate sanctions. Ejehi, however, emphasized that he just “heard words from here and there though nothing has been officially conveyed to the judiciary.”

Namazi’s other son, Babak has spoken quite frequently about his father and brother’s imprisonment. In November 2016, in an interview with Steven Inskeep, host of NPR’s Morning Edition, Babak discussed the impact of the ordeal on him and his family.

“As a family, we're devastated. It's just being bombarded for the past year with one horrible event after another. I have half my family ripped away from me. I'm wondering if I will see my father again. It's very horrible to say this, but he has been in essence handed a life sentence. A 10-year sentence for an 80-year-old man is a life sentence. But I have to do all I can to save my father's life and my brother's.”

Babak has since urged President Trump to take “personal responsibility” for negotiating his father and brother’s release. Baquer Namazi and his son Samiak currently remain jailed in Evin Prison.

In June 2017, U.N. Secretary General Antonio Guterres appealed to President Rouhani in a private letter to release Baquer on humanitarian grounds.

In August 2017, a Tehran appeals court upheld the convictions of both Namazis. Baquer’s health has deteriorated rapidly. “He is 81-years-old, previously had a triple bypass surgery, has lost 30 pounds in prison and suffers from shortness of breath, dizziness, bouts of confusion, and recently lost his hearing in one ear,” international counsel to the family, Jared Genser, said in a statement.

On Sept. 5, 2017, the U.N. Working Group on Arbitrary Detention ruled that Siamak and Baquer Namazi were not granted a fair trial under internationally recognized law and called for their immediate release.

On Sept. 19, 2017, Baquer underwent surgery to receive a pacemaker. One week prior, IRGC guards had refused to take him to the hospital despite being advised by cardiologists, prompting pleas from his family. Three days later, U.N. Secretary General Guterres urged President Rouhani to release Namazi on humanitarian grounds during a meeting in New York.

On Jan. 15, 2018, Baquer was rushed to the hospital after a severe drop in blood pressure and irregular heartbreak. He was granted a four-day medical leave beginning on January 28 and. He was told to report to the government’s medical examiner on February 4, and that his leave would be extended until then. The examiner recommended a three-month leave on medical grounds. But on February 6, Namazi received a call ordering him to return to Evin Prison.

On Feb. 7, 2018, the White House issued a statement calling for the immediate release of Namazi and all other U.S. citizens detained in Iran.

On August 26, 2018 the Tehran Appeals Court denied the appeals of Siamak and Baquer Namazi, upholding their convictions of collaborating with the U.S. government. The Namazis U.S.-based lawyer Jared Genser condemned the move as a “cruel and unjust decision” of the court. 

 

Karan Vafadari and Afarin Niasari

Husband and wife Karan Vafadari and Afarin Niasari were arrested by the IRGC intelligence organization in July 2016 and then held at Evin Prison. Details about their case were only published in December 2016. The couple reportedly manages an art gallery in Tehran. Niasari, a permanent U.S. resident, was apprehended by IRGC agents at Imam Khomeini airport when she attempted to visit family abroad, according to Vafadari’s sister. Soon after, Niasari was forced to call her husband and ask him to come to the airport, where he too was apprehended. The next day, they were brought back to their home handcuffed, while IRGC agents destroyed works of art hanging on their walls.

No formal charges were immediately brought against Vafadari and Niasari, however prosecutors alluded to the pair hosting mix gendered parties for foreign diplomats and Iranians where alcohol was consumed. Vafadari, however, is Zoroastrian, and therefore not subject himself to the ban on Muslim consumption of alcohol. Iran permits recognized minorities ― Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians ― to drink alcohol in the privacy of their homes.

Vafadari and Niasari run an art gallery in Tehran, and Niasari also works as an architect. Vafadari, a dual national, was educated in the United States and he has three children that live in New York City. Since being detained, Vafadari has been able contact family members who have visited him a number of times.

In August 2016, Jafari Dowlat-Abadi, Tehran’s Prosecutor General described the Vafadari and Niasari home as “a center of immorality and prostitution.” The original charges were initially dropped due to lack of evidence, but reinstated at a hearing in March 2017, during which the pair was denied legal counsel.

New charges were brought against Vafadari and Niasari in a pre-trial hearing on March 8, 2017. The new charges included attempting to overthrow the Islamic Republic and recruiting spies through foreign embassies. The trial was slated to begin on April 17 but has yet to be held.

In a letter to the judge dated July 24, Vafadari said that the charges against him and his wife were completely false. “It is my belief that judiciary officials arrested us for political and financial reasons, without sufficient investigation or evidence,” he wrote.

In a Jan. 21, 2018 letter, Vafadari stated he had been issued a 27-year prison sentence while his wife Niasari had received 16 years. Vafadari’s sentence included 124 lashes, confiscation of all assets, and a fine, he wrote. He cited charges related to espionage, alcohol consumption, receiving gifts of alcohol, and hosting parties. Vafadari attributed his treatment and sentence to being Zoroastrian and a dual national, with the asset seizure being justified by the court under an unprecedented use of 1928 Civil Code Article 989.

On July 21, 2018, Vafadari and Niasari were released from prison on bail after having their initial sentences reduced earlier in 2018. They were awaiting a final verdict on their appeal request as of late July.

 

Nizar Zakka

Nizar Zakka, Lebanese national and permanent U.S. resident, was reportedly detained on his way to the airport on Sept. 18, 2015. He is an information and communications technology expert and secretary general of the information and communications technology organization IJMA3. He holds both Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in computer science from the University of Texas at Austin. Zakka has lead development projects for corporations such as Cisco and Microsoft, as well has doing contract work for the U.S. State Department.

He was reportedly invited by the Iranian government to Tehran for a business conference focusing on entrepreneurship and has since been accused of espionage for the United States. While accused of having deep ties with the US intelligence and military apparatuses by the Revolutionary Guard Corps, his family has maintained that no such ties exist.

Zakka has been denied access to legal representation or contact with his family. On July 11, 2016, Tehran’s prosecutor announced that he had been indicted but did not specify the charges. On Sept. 20, 2016, Zakka’s lawyer announced that he had been sentenced to 10 years in prison and $4.2 million fine for collaborating against the state. On December 8, 2016, he began a hunger strike. Zakka’s American lawyer, Jason Poblete, said that he was punished for being on hunger strike and “moved to a room with 60 other men and forced to sleep on the floor side by side with common criminals,” according to the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran

Nizar Zakka’s family met with Lebanese officials in late May 2017 to ask for assistance in arranging his release. Lebanese Justice Minister Salim Jreisati promised to find a resolution as soon as possible, according to a statement issued by Zakka’s lawyer.

On June 27, 2017, Nizar began his fifth hunger strike since being imprisoned in Evin Prison. Zakka issued the following statement on June 29, 2017:

“I will not sign a forced confession or accept anything less than my freedom and innocence. I would rather die with my head [held] high. I plead with those in a position to help, including the United Nations Secretary General and the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran, for my release, and the release of fellow innocent Americans and others being held in Iran.”

After Zakka started his most recent hunger strike, he reported that Evin Prison guards “increased the physical and psychological pressures on him.”

In July 2017, an audio recording was released by Zakka’s family to the Washington Free Beacon. In the recording, Zakka called for international assistance in his release, defended his innocence and vowed to continue his hunger strike "until my death or freedom." Zakka then asked to meet with a name that has been omitted from the recording to provide the gentleman with his will. He finished by expressing his desire to meet with the International Red Cross Committee before his “situation degrades significantly.” He eventually ended his strike after 33 days.

Following the release of the recording, Zakka’s lawyer Jason Poblete issued a statement on behalf of his family, which stated: “The Zakka family asks for continued prayers and support, as well as the unconditional humanitarian release of Nizar.”

On July 3, 2017, Iran confirmed that an appeals court upheld the sentences against Zakka and three American citizens. Zakka had been sentenced to 10 years in prison and a $4.2 million fine.

Zakka's U.S.-based lawyer told the Center for Human Rights in Iran that Evin Prison's director was refusing to allow outside medical treatment for Zakka for an illness that developed sine his imprisonment. 

In August 2018, Lebanon’s head of General Security Maj. Gen. Abbas Ibrahim reportedly traveled to Tehran and met with Nizar Zakka. Ibrahim’s visit marked an attempt to pave the way for Zakka’s release and return to Lebanon. 

On January 2, 2019, Zakka’s family claimed in a statement that Iranian authorities had transferred Nizar out of his cell in Evin Prison to a private Revolutionary Guard prison for questioning. The family said they were unable to speak with Zakka for nearly three weeks from the time it was revealed that he had been moved.

Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri demanded Zakka’s release in a letter to President Rouhani on January 15, 2019. Hariri delivered the letter to Rouhani in his meeting with Iranian Ambassador to Lebanon Muhammad-Jalal Firouznia. No reply was publicized. 

On June 11, 2019, Iran released Zakka following intense negotiations between Lebanese and Iranian officials. Hezbollah, the Lebanese Shiite political movement and militia, facilitated as well. Hezbollah is part of Lebanon’s coalition government but is also a close ally of Iran. It was established with the assistance of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps in the 1980s. Fars News Agency said Zakka was released thanks to mediation of Hezbollah’s leader Hassan Nasrallah “and the respect Tehran pays him.” In the picture below, Zakka (left) is on plane bound for Beirut with the Lebanese director general of public security.  

 

Robert Levinson

Former FBI agent Robert Levinson went missing on March 9, 2007, during a visit to Kish Island. Initial reports indicated that he was researching a cigarette smuggling case as a private investigator. “He's a private citizen involved in private business in Iran,” the State Department said in 2007. Iran has denied knowing the status or location of Levinson, who will turn 70 in 2018. 

Levinson’s family first received evidence that he was alive in November 2010. In a 54-second video, Levinson asked for a U.S. government response to his captors' demands, which have not been publicized. In March 2011, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced that new information indicated that Levinson was being held in Southwest Asia, without specifying any particular countries. His unidentified captors sent a set of photographs to his family the following month. Levinson, dressed in an orange prison jumpsuit, held a sign bearing a different message in each photo. “This is the result of 30 years serving for USA,” one read. In December 2011, Levinson’s family released a statement he had taped a year earlier.

LevinsonIn 2013, the Associated Press reported that Levinson had been working on a private contract for U.S. intelligence. In late 2013, the family acknowledged that his visit to Kish Island was partly related to his contract work for the CIA. Levinson served in the FBI and Drug Enforcement Administration for 28 years, where he focused on investigating organized crime in Russia. He retired from the FBI in 1998 and began working as a private investigator. He has seven children.

In January 2016, following a prisoner swap that coincided with implementation of the nuclear deal, Secretary of State John Kerry said Iran agreed to deepen coordination in finding Levinson. White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest later clarified that the government had reason to believe that Levinson is no longer in Iran, and had thought so for several years.  

In March 2017, the White House issued a statement marking the 10-year anniversary of Levinson’s disappearance. “The Trump Administration remains unwavering in our commitment to locate Mr. Levinson and bring him home,” it said. Also in March, Levinson’s family filed a lawsuit against Iran in a federal court.  

Secretary of State Rex Tillerson promised to meet with the family of Robert Levinson during questions at a House Foreign Affairs Committee hearing on June 14, 2017. Rep. Ted Deutch (D-FL) asked for Tillerson’s commitment during the Committee’s review of the State Department’s budget for the next fiscal year.

On July 11, 2017, a bi-partisan delegation of lawmakers, led by Senator Bill Nelson (D-FL) published a letter to President Trump, which calls upon the President to “re-engage” with Iran over Levinson. “Bob’s return is an urgent humanitarian issue,” the letter states. “It is critical that the United States maintain pressure on Iran to see that he is returned as soon as possible.” In March 2019, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo marked the 12th anniversary of Levin’s capture. He called on Iran to honors its commitment to help locate and recover him. 

The location and fate of Robert Levinson remains unknown.

 

UK flagU.K. Citizens

 

Anoush Ashoori

Anoush Ashoori, a dual Iranian-British national, was arrested in Tehran in August 2017 on charges of espionage. Judiciary spokesman Gholamhossein Esmaili said Ashoori was sentenced to ten years for working for Israel's Mossad and an additional two years for “acquiring illegitimate wealth.” It was unknown whether the sentences ran concurrently. “We have been supporting the family of a British-Iranian dual national...and our Embassy in Tehran continues to request consular access,” said a spokesman for Britain’s foreign ministry.

 

Kameel Ahmady 

Kameel Ahmady, a dual Iranian-British national, was arrested on August 11, 2019, at his home in Iran. Ahmady is an anthropologist who has studied politically sensitive issues, including child marriage and female genital mutilation in Iran. He was born in the Kurdish city of Mahabad in Iran’s West Azerbaijan Province. Ahmady received a bachelor’s degree from the University of the Arts London and his master's from the University of Kent, Canterbury-UK, according to his personal website.  

Shafagh Rahmani, Ahmady’s wife, confirmed his detention but said she was given no information about the charges against him. “I was traveling when Kameel was arrested,” she said. “I came back home on Monday and on Tuesday I went to the court in Evin Prison to ask about his situation. The [judicial authorities] did not respond to my questions. They told me that his case had to do with national security and he was arrested by intelligence agents.”  

Rahmani said “security agents” confiscated documents and Ahmady’s ID card before detaining him. She said he was given a one-month temporary detention while prosecutors developed their case. Ahmady was reportedly being held in Evin prison. On October 1, Iranian authorities confirmed Ahmady’s had been detained over suspected ties to foreign intelligence services.  

 

Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe

Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe was arrested at the airport on April 3, 2016, on her way out of the country after visiting her parents. Iran’s state news agency reported in June 2016 that she was accused of trying to cause a “soft toppling” of the Iranian government. Iranian media reported that she was implicated in anti-government protests following the disputed 2009 presidential election. The 40-year-old is a program manager for the Thomson-Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of the news agency.

Zaghari-Ratcliffe was separated from her 22-month-old daughter Gabriella and taken to an unknown prison in Kerman province some 600 miles south-east of Tehran. Authorities seized Gabriella’s British passport, leaving her stranded in Iran under the care of her grandparents.

Zaghari-Ratcliffe’s husband, Richard, said that his wife was moved out of solitary confinement after 45 days in prison. Zaghari-Ratcliffe, who has lived in Britain since 2007, told her parents that her case relates to “national security,” according to The Telegraph. She has not been granted access to a lawyer.

Zaghari-Ratcliffe was allowed to see her parents and daughter on May 11, 2016, and was allowed almost daily phone calls with her family until June 5. Her husband, Richard Ratcliffe, saw the loss of communication as an indicator that she may have been put back in solitary confinement. In July 2016, he said that she had lost weight, seen her hair fall out and was virtually unable to walk. 

On July 11, 2016, Tehran’s prosecutor announced that she had been indicted but did not specify the charges. Richard Ratcliffe told the media that a member of the Revolutionary Guards told the family that his wife would be released as long as the British government reached “an agreement” with them. The U.K. foreign ministry has said it has raised the case “at the highest levels.” Prime Minister Theresa May raised the case in a meeting with President Rouhani on Sept. 21, 2016 in New York.

Richard Ratcliffe announced on Sept. 9, 2016, that his wife was sentenced to five years in prison. Zaghari-Ratcliffe was convicted on secret charges in a Revolutionary Court. A prosecutor reportedly confirmed in January 2017 that the sentence had been finalized. In late April 2017, her final appeal at the Supreme Court was rejected

In May 2017, Gabriella, Zaghari-Ratcliffe’s daughter, had her passport returned to her. Richard Ratcliffe wrote to the Iranian Embassy to thank them for the release of Gabriella’s passport. “I regard her now as no longer formally detained by the Iranian authorities,” he wrote.

On Sept. 20, 2017, British Prime Minister Theresa May urged President Rouhani to release Zaghari-Ratcliffe during a meeting on the sidelines of the U.N. General Assembly.

In October 2017, Zaghari-Ratcliffe was charged with two more offenses which, if proven, carry a 16-year prison sentence on top of the five-year prison sentence which she was already serving. The charges allege that Ms. Ratcliffe joined organizations working to overthrow the Iranian government, and attended demonstrations outside of the Iranian embassy in London. Iranian authorities claimed to have a photo proving her participation, found on her private email account.

In October 2017, Iran's Prosecutor General Abbas Jaffari Dolatabadi said that a letter written by David Cameron pleading for the release of Ms. Nazanin was "confirmation that she had links with the U.K. government."

By Nov. 1, 2017, more than one million people had signed a Change.org petition calling for Zaghari-Ratcliffe’s release. On the following day, Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson condemned her imprisonment and offered to visit her.

On Nov. 4, 2017, Zaghari-Ratcliffe was brought before an Iranian Revolutionary Court facing additional charges for spreading propaganda against the regime. Her five-year sentence could reportedly be increased to 16 years.

British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson apologized on Nov. 13, 2017, for remarks that suggested Zaghari-Ratcliffe had been working in Iran, rather than travelling there for personal reasons. Zaghari-Ratcliffe’s family and employer, the Thomson Reuters Foundation, rejected Johnson’s initial comments that Zaghari-Ratcliffe had been teaching journalism in Iran.

In December 2017, Johnson travelled to Iran to encourage the release of Zaghari-Ratcliffe and other dual nationals.

On Dec. 22, 2017, the Judiciary rejected reports that Zaghari-Ratcliffe might be released soon after an official database listed her as eligible for early release. The Judiciary stated new charges had been brought against her.

British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson stated Jan. 11, 2018 that he had raised Zaghari-Ratcliffe’s case during a meeting with Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif.

On July 21, 2018, the judge in charge of judicial affairs at Evin prison told Zaghari-Ratcliffe she would not be released from prison under any circumstances until the United Kingdom paid an outstanding debt of $394 million to Iran. The demand referred to a pre-revolution arms deal in which Iran made payment, but the United Kingdom failed to deliver the arms due to the political upheaval.

On August 23, Zaghari-Ratcliffe was awarded a temporary three-day furlough from prison for the first time in two years. During the furlough, she was able to reunite with her four-year-old daughter. She returned to Evin prison in Iran on August 26 to complete her five-year sentence after her furlough extension was refused. 

On September 25, British Prime Minister Theresa May called for Zaghari-Ratcliffe’s case in a meeting with President Rouhani. 

Nazanin spent her 40th birthday in detainment on December 26, 2018, marking her 1,000th day spent incarcerated in Iranian prison. Mayor of London Sadiq Khan, in a joint statement with Nazanin’s husband, said they are “united in calling on the Iranian authorities to release Nazanin immediately along with the others who are being wrongly detained.”

On January 13, 2019, Nazanin initiated a three-day hunger strike to protest denial of medical care. Richard Ratcliffe stated that Nazanin was “pushed to the edge” after members of Revolutionary Guards allegedly asked her to spy on the United Kingdom for Iran in return for her eventual freedom. Ratcliffe further explained that they wanted Nazanin to target the UK’s Department for International Development and a human rights research group, Small Media.

Zaghari-Ratcliffe ended the hunger strike following the decision of prison authorities to grant her medical treatment for lumps in her breasts, her severe neck pain, and numbness in her arms and legs. Nazanin received treatment at Iranmehr hospital. As a result of the hunger strike, Nazanin reportedly lost six and a half pounds in weight and suffered from “constant headaches, dizziness, and nausea.”

On September 23, Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif said Britain had offered 400 million euros of frozen Iranian funds in exchange for the release of Zaghari-Ratcliffe. The deal was initially proposed in 2016 by former British Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Philip Hammond, according to Zarif. “Jeremy started to play tough because he wanted to become prime minister and it didn’t work out for anybody,” Zarif said. The frozen funds were owed to Iran for a decades-old tank sale that Britain never honored.  

On October 2, the Center for Human Rights in Iran published an open letter written by Zaghari-Ratcliffe from Evin prison. In the letter, Zaghari-Ratcliffe pleaded for Iran to release her and end her separation from her five-year-old daughter. “My child and I are the playthings of politicians, inside and outside our homeland, who have used us as tools to try to achieve their own political goals,” she wrote. 

 

Roya Saberi Negad Nobakht

Roya Saberi Negad Nobakht was arrested in autumn of 2013 while visiting Shiraz. She was sentenced to 20 years in prison in 2014 for Facebook posts which allegedly criticized the Iranian regime for being too controlling and Islamic. The 50 year old was arrested upon arrival at the Shiraz airport by the cyber crime intelligence unit of the Revolutionary Guards, with the official charges being “gathering and participation with intent to commit crimes against national security” and “insulting Islamic sanctities.”

Nobakht was taken to Evin prison, denied access to proper legal channels, and reportedly tortured. She confessed to crimes against the state, which were eventually determined to be extracted under duress. She was ultimately sentenced to 20 years in prison, however, was later given a reduced sentence of seven years.

In the seven years prior to her arrest, Nobakht had been living as a housewife in the United Kingdom in the Stockport suburb of Heald Green. She reportedly had no history of political activism, either online or in person, and the sole purpose of her trip to Iran was to see her family.

On October 24, 2016 petitions for Nobakht’s release, as well as Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe and Kamal Foroughi, were delivered with a letter co-signed by 117 Members of Parliament and members of the House of Lords to the British government. “We have very strong humanitarian and health concerns about their detentions,” the letter stated. “We urge the United Kingdom to use its recently restored relations with Iran to seek the immediate release of these prisoners and return [them] to their loved ones.” Amnesty International sponsored the petition.

 

Kamal Foroughi

Businessman Kamal Foroughi was arrested in May 2011 in Tehran and convicted of spying. The 76 year old had been working as a consultant for the Malaysian national oil and gas company Petronas. His family said that plainclothes officers arrested him at his Tehran apartment and did not show a warrant.

Foroughi was taken to Evin Prison and held in solitary confinement for 18 months. In 2013, he was tried by a revolutionary court and sentenced to eight years’ imprisonment. Seven of those years were for espionage and one year was for possessing alcohol at his home. He denied both charges.

Foroughi’s family has been concerned about Foroughi’s lack of access to medical treatment. In November 2015, however, he was taken to a hospital and received a number of tests. On June 9, 2016, E.U. foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini said that the European Union was “not aware of any changes regarding the conditions under which he is held in prison.” She emphasized that the European Union will use every opportunity to raise his case with Iran.

On July 26, 2016, Kamran Foroughi announced that his father Kamal would be released within a week. “We have just had some great news. 76-year-old Grandpa Kamal’s lawyer visited him last Saturday and told him some news from the Judiciary and Prosecutors’ Office that all the relevant parties have agreed and signed for his release.” On Jan. 1, 2017, Foroughi was granted medical leave outside of the hospital. According to his son, the Prosecutor’s office told Foroughi’s lawyer that he would be released on “temporary leave” (medical furlough) by January 12, but was never released. 

 

French flagFrench Citizens

 

Fariba Adelkhah

Fariba Adelkhah, a prominent French-Iranian anthropology and social sciences researcher, was detained in June 2019. Adelkhah was reportedly arrested by the IRGC intelligence organization on “probable charges of espionage.” She was conducting research in Iran and visiting her mother at the time of her arrest.

Her colleagues first reported her missing when she did not return home on June 25 as originally planned. Jean-Francois Bayart, a close friend of Adelkhah, noted that she was arrested on June 5 and was being held at Evin prison in Tehran. "She has been visited by her family. She hasn't been mistreated, but I'm worried about her because she isn't physically strong," Bayart said.

Adelkhah is the Director of Research at the Center for International Studies (CERI) at Sciences Po in Paris. Adelkhah, a dual national, was born in Tehran on April 25, 1959 but left for France in 1977 to study. She received her Ph.D. in anthropology from Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in 1989. Her research has focused on social and political change in Iran during the second half of the 20th century. Adelkhah has written several books on Islam and Iran including “Being Modern in Iran,” her best-known book.  

On July 15, 2019, the French foreign ministry acknowledged Adelkhah’s arrest but said it had not received “satisfactory” information on her status. “The French authorities were recently informed of the arrest of Fariba Adelkhah. France calls on the Iranian authorities to shed full light on Mrs Adelkhah’s situation and repeats its demands, particularly with regard to an immediate authorisation for consular access. No satisfactory response has been received until now,” the foreign ministry said.

A spokesman for the Iranian government claimed to have no information on the case. "I heard the news, [but] do not know who arrested her and on what grounds," Ali Rabiei told Tasnim news agency on July 15.

On July 16, Iran's Judiciary confirmed that Adelkhah had been arrested. "This person was detained recently...but due to the nature of the case, this is not the proper time to give any information about it," said Judiciary spokesman Gholamhossein Esmaili. 

France has demanded consular access to Adelkhah. Iran, however, does not recognize dual nationality and, therefore, does not grant dual nationals consular visits by foreign officials.

 

Roland Marchal 

On October 16, France’s foreign ministry confirmed that Roland Marchal, a sub-Saharan Africa specialist at Paris university Sciences Po, was arrested in June 2019 while visiting Fariba Adelkhah in Tehran. The two were reportedly in a romantic relationship.  

France had initially tried to keep Marchal’s detention confidential to protect negotiations. The French foreign ministry said Marchal had received consular visits and had a lawyer. “We want the Iranian authorities to show transparency in this affair and to act without delay to put an end to this unacceptable situation,” said ministry spokeswoman Agnes von der Muhll. 

 

Nazak Afshar

Nazak Afshar, a 58-year-old former employee of France’s Foreign Ministry, was detained upon arrival in Iran on March 12, 2016. She returned to visit her critically ill mother.

Afshar was first arrested in 2009 for “giving refuge to anarchists in the cultural section of the French Embassy” in the aftermath of the disputed 2009 presidential election, when authorities used violence to quash mass protests. She appeared as a defendant in a mass trial of those who questioned the election results. No verdict was issued, however, so she was released. Afshar then flew to Paris.

Afshar was sentenced to six years in prison by Judge Abolqasem Salvati of Branch 15 of the Revolutionary Court. The charges have not been publicized. After her sentencing, Afshar was eventually released from Evin prison on bail. As of May 2016, she was awaiting a ruling on her appeal against the sentence. 

 

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Saeed Malekpour

Malekpour41-year-old Saeed Malekpour was arrested in October 2008 for allegedly moderating a pornographic website. He returned to Iran to visit his dying father. Malekpour, born and raised in Iran, holds a degree in metallurgical engineering from Sharif University of Tehran and worked for Iran Khodro, one of the country’s largest auto manufacturers. In 2004, he moved to Canada with his wife and was granted permanent residency status, living Richmond Hill, Ontario where he found work as a web developer.

In 2010, Malekpour was sentenced to death for “blasphemy,” but the sentence was overturned a year later. In 2013, he was sentenced to life in prison after showing remorse in court. Malekpour reportedly remains in Evin Prison after eight years. For most of that time he has been denied access to legal representation. He has been denied in-person family visits and prison leave for medical or special family circumstances. He has also been held in solitary confinement and tortured. In 2010, Malekpour wrote a letter to a judge saying that he had been forced to make a confession that had been broadcast on state television.

In January 2017, the Revolutionary Guards blocked Malekpour’s request for furlough. “Initially, we, including Saeed and his lawyer, requested furlough but the prosecutor would not agree,” his sister Maryam told the Center for Human Rights in Iran. “Now, both the prosecutor and the prison warden have agreed, but the Revolutionary Guards is opposed.”

In October 2018, the Center for Human Rights in Iran called for Malekpur’s release on medical grounds “given his deteriorating health status.” Iran Human Rights Monitor reported that he was hospitalized in the “heart unit of Tehran’s Taleghani Hospital” and had been returned to Evin Prison without “receiving adequate treatment.”

 

Austrian flagAustrian Citizens

 

Kamran Ghaderi

Kamran Ghaderi was arrested on January 2, 2016 upon arrival in Iran at Imam Khomeini International Airport. Ghaderi is an Austrian-Iranian dual citizen who was a member of an Austrian business delegation to Tehran in 2015.

Ghaderi was accused “conducting espionage for enemy states.” Authorities produced a confession from Ghaderi in February 2016. Ghaderi reportedly signed the confession because the authorities threatened to detain his wife, who had flown to Iran to visit him at the invitation of the Intelligence Ministry. 

On October 18, 2016, Tehran Prosecutor Abbas Dolatabadi announced that Ghaderi had been sentenced to 10 years in prison for espionage on behalf of the United States. Ghaderi’s wife claimed that her husband has no ties to the United States.

Ghaderi has not been receiving treatment for a tumor in his leg, according to the Center for Human Rights in Iran. He is being held in Evin Prison. 

 

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Ahmadreza Jalali

Emergency disaster relief expert Ahmadreza Jalali was arrested on April 24, 2016 in Tehran by the Ministry of Intelligence. The 46 year-old physician and Swedish resident was invited to visit by Tehran University and is now reportedly being held on charges of “collaborating with enemy states.” Jalali has been on a hunger strike since Dec. 25, 2016, according to the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran. In February 2017, his wife, Vida Mehrannia, who lives in Stockholm with their two children, told the Corriere della Sera newspaper that her husband had been charged with “the death penalty for collaboration with enemy states.”

Jalali has taught at universities in Belgium, Italy and Sweden. The Italian government said that it “activated its channels of communication with the Iranian authorities to highlight its extreme concern.” The Swedish government has asked for “consular access” to Jallali.

In April 2017, a Flemish newspaper reported that Jalali told his sister that he was forced to sign a confession, for which he will receive the death penalty.

On Oct. 21, 2017, Jalali was convicted of spying for Israel and sentenced to death. In an undated letter released after his conviction, Jalali stated he had been arrested for refusing to spy for Iranian intelligence.

The Iranian Supreme Court ruled on Dec. 5, 2017 to uphold Jalali’s death sentence for espionage. Less than two weeks later, state television aired what appeared to be a forced confession, which was recorded while he was being held in solitary confinement under extreme duress.

As of January 2018, a branch of the Iranian Supreme Court was reviewing the death sentence.

 

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Jolie King and Mark Firkin 

Jolie King, a British-Australian dual citizen, and her Australian boyfriend, Mark Firkin, were arrested in June. The two travel bloggers were detained during a cross-continent trek from Perth, Australia to London.  The couple was detained for flying a drone near Tehran without a permit, according to a prominent Iranian journalist. They stopped posting to social media in late June. The couple was being held at Evin Prison in Tehran with many other foreign detainees. King was reportedly held for weeks in solitary confinement, according to a fellow prisoner.   

A British-Australian academic was also detained in Iran, but her name was not disclosed. The university lecturer was arrested about a year ago, according to Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 

Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade confirmed the detention of three of its citizens and said Sydney was providing consular assistance to the families of all three. “We have no reason to think that these arrests are connected to international concern over Iran’s nuclear program, United Nations sanctions or sanctions enforcement or maritime security and

On October 5, Iran released an Firkin and King after three months of detention. Iran dropped all charges against the travel bloggers following “very sensitive negotiations” with the Australian government. 

Russian FlagRussian Citizens

 

Yulia Yuzik

On October 2, Yulia Yuzik, a Russian journalist, was arrested in Tehran on charges of espionage for Israel. Iranian authorities seized her passport at the airport when she arrived in Tehran on September 29. They arrested her four days later in her hotel room. Yukiz had reported from Iran for several Russian media outlets.  

On October 7, Tehran said Yuzik was arrested for a “visa violation” and not for spying as initially reported. Russia summoned the Iranian ambassador on October 4 to discuss the case. 

 

Garrett Nada, managing editor of The Iran Primer at the U.S. Institute of Peace, along with Nicholas Cappuccino and Maana Azar-Chehr, research assistants at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, and John Caves, a research assistant at the U.S. Institute of Peace, contributed to this roundup.

Updated