The following are excerpted reactions from nuclear experts to the parameters for a comprehensive nuclear deal announced on April 2 by Iran and the world’s six major powers.
—April 2, 2015 in statement
—April 2, 2015 for the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
- significantly reduce Iran's capacity to enrich uranium to the point that it would take at least 12 months to amass enough uranium enriched to weapons grade for one bomb;
- require Iran to modify its Arak heavy water reactor to meaningfully reduce its proliferation potential and bar Iran from developing any capability for separating plutonium from spent fuel for weapons;
- put in place enhanced international inspections and monitoring that would help to deter Iran from attempting to violate the agreement, but if Iran did, increase the international community's ability to detect promptly and, if necessary, disrupt future efforts by Iran to build nuclear weapons, including at potential undeclared sites; and
- require Iran to cooperate with the IAEA to conclude the investigation of Iran's past efforts to develop a nuclear warhead and provide transparency sufficient to help ensure that any such effort remains in abeyance.
- While technical details are still to be fully resolved, important U.S. objectives have been achieved:
- uranium enrichment only at the Natanz plant and no enrichment at theunderground facility at Fordow;
- prohibition of the Arak heavy water research reactor from producing weaponsgrade plutonium or reprocessing to recover plutonium from spent fuel;
- a reduction and then a limit on Iran’s stockpile of enriched uranium to 300 KG for 15 years; broad and sweeping inspections and other constraints;
- a two-thirds reduction in installed centrifuges for ten years; a range oflimitations and inspections that will be in force over a 10-25 year period andsome permanent inspections of the program.
- what means will be used to limit the stockpile of Iran’s enriched uranium to300 Kg of LEU for 15 years;
- how the existing UNSC resolutions sanctioning Iran will be replaced by aresolution or resolutions that creates an approved procurement channel andplaces restrictions on conventional arms and ballistic missiles;
- what will be the set of measures that will address the IAEA’s concernsregarding the possible military dimensions (PMD) of Iran’s program;
- what scale of uranium enrichment will be possible for Iran after ten years;
- what will be the relationship between the lifting of sanctions and Iran’s performance;
- what is the system for evaluating the severity of violations of the agreement andhow would they trigger the snap-back of sanctions.
Madeleine Albright, fmr Sec State
Michael Armacost, Amb
Samuel R. Berger, fmr NSA
Zbigniew Brzezinski, fmr NSA
Nicholas Burns, Amb
James Cartwright, Gen
Stephen Cheney, BrigGen
Chester A. Crocker
Ryan C. Crocker, Amb
James Dobbins, Amb
William J. Fallon, Adm
Leslie H. Gelb
William Harrop, Amb
Stephen B. Heintz
Carla A. Hills
Nancy L. Kassebaum, Sen
Frank Kearney, LTG
Daniel C. Kurtzer, Amb
Carl Levin, Sen
Winston Lord, Amb
William Luers, Amb
Richard Lugar, Sen
Jessica T. Mathews
William G. Miller, Amb
Richard Murphy, Amb
Eric Olson, Admiral
Thomas R. Pickering, Amb
Paul R. Pillar
Nicholas Platt, Amb
Joe R. Reeder
William A. Reinsch
J. Stapelton Roy, Amb
Brent Scowcroft, fmr NSA
Joe Sestak, RADM
Jim Slattery, Congressman
James Stavridis, Adm
Lawrence B. Wilkerson, Col
Timothy E. Wirth, Sen
Frank G. Wisner, Amb
Anthony C. Zinni, Gen
On April 4, President Barack Obama expressed support for the nuclear framework that was announced by the world’s six major powers and Iran on April 2. “Today we have an historic opportunity to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons in Iran, and to do so peacefully, with the international community firmly behind us,” he said in his weekly address. The following is a video and transcript of the address.
In Iran, celebrations broke out in the streets immediately following the announcement of the blueprint for a nuclear deal and continued the following day.
The following are excerpted statements by Israeli officials on the nuclear framework that was announced by the world’s six major powers and Iran on April 2.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
PM Netanyahu to Pres Obama: A deal based on this framework would threaten the survival of Israel. #IranTalks— Mark Regev (@MarkRegevPMO) April 2, 2015
PM Netanyahu: Just 2 days ago, Iran said 'the destruction of Israel is non-negotiable' #IranTalks— Mark Regev (@MarkRegevPMO) April 2, 2015
PM Netanyahu: In these fateful days Iran is accelerating the arming of its terror proxies to attack Israel #IranTalks— Mark Regev (@MarkRegevPMO) April 2, 2015
PM Netanyahu: This deal would legitimize Iran's nuclear program, bolster Iran's economy & increase Iran's aggression & terror #IranTalks— Mark Regev (@MarkRegevPMO) April 2, 2015
PM Netanyahu: Such a deal would not block Iran's path to the bomb. It would pave it. #IranTalks— Mark Regev (@MarkRegevPMO) April 2, 2015
PM Netanyahu: It would increase the risks of nuclear proliferation and the risks of a horrific war. #IranTalks— Mark Regev (@MarkRegevPMO) April 2, 2015
PM Netanyahu: The alternative is standing firm and increasing the pressure on Iran until a better deal is achieved. #IranTalks— Mark Regev (@MarkRegevPMO) April 2, 2015
As the civilized world is lulled into slumber on a bed of illusions the rulers of Iran continue to encourage subversion and terrorism.— PM of Israel (@IsraeliPM) April 15, 2015
At the most, they make a halfhearted statement for the record.— PM of Israel (@IsraeliPM) April 15, 2015
BENJAMIN NETANYAHU, ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER: Well, I'm -- it's more they think it's a good deal, but we differ. I think this is a -- a bad deal. It leaves Iran with a vast nuclear infrastructure. It lifts the sanctions on them fairly quickly and enables them to get billions of dollars into their coffers. They're not going to use it for schools or hospitals or roads, Martha, they're going to use it to pump up their terror machine worldwide and their military machine that is busy conquering the Middle East now.
And third, it's a temporary deal. That is, whatever restrictions are placed on Iran's nuclear program, they're removed after a few years and Iran will be free to have a vast arsenal with which to, uh, ultimately produce many nuclear bombs.
I think for the preeminent terrorist state of our time to have a free path, an easy pass to nuclear weapons endangers Israel, endangers the region, endangers the world, it endangers everyone listening to me right now.
RADDATZ: Do you think President Obama is just too trusting?
NETANYAHU: Look, I think we have a legitimate difference of view. And I think that it's not only my own concerns. I think that the real concerns in the region, whatever is stated publicly as such, that if Iran is given this free path to the tomb, a deal that doesn't block Iran's path to nuclear weapons, but actually paves it, what will happen is that this will spark a nuclear arms race among the Sunni countries in the Middle East. And that would have -- a nuclear-armed Middle East, I think that's a global danger. I think it's very, very bad.
RADDATZ: What will you do to try to stop this? What will you do for the next three months?
NETANYAHU: Well, first of all, I think there is still time to reach a good deal, a better deal. And I think what is required is to hold firm, to increase the pressures until a better deal is achieved, one that significantly rolls back Iran's nuclear infrastructure and one that doesn't lift the restrictions on Iran -- on Iran's nuclear program until they stop their aggression in the region, until they stop their terrorism worldwide.
RADDATZ: The United States says it will be phased in. That hasn't even really been decided.
NETANYAHU: Well, it's never even been on the table, nor have ICBMs, intercontinental ballistic missiles, that they can use to propel their nuclear weapons to any part of the world, including the United States.
Nothing has been asked of Iran, to change its aggressive and terrorist policies, nothing. And I think it's important to change the deal, to toughen up the deal, to get a better deal, because we all prefer to find a solution, but it has to be the right one.
RADDATZ: How can you get a deal that Iran would accept? The U.S. and others who have been dealing for years, and you've got other players involved in this now. How can you get a deal that they would accept?
NETANYAHU: Martha, I think that what they don't accept today, they can accept tomorrow. If I told you two years ago that Syria's Bashar al-Assad would accept a deal that takes out all the chemicals for Syria, that takes out all the chemical weapons from Syria, just takes it out, not leave inspectors or beefed up inspectors to inspect what is there but actually take out the whole stuff, you would have said that's unrealistic. And you know what...
RADDATZ: Would you consider unilateral air strikes?
NETANYAHU: Well, first, let me say that we prefer a peaceful solution. How did you get a peaceful solution in Syria? You ratcheted up the pressure. And when Syria saw that that -- those pressures were raining down on them, they agreed to what was not agreed before. The same could be true with Iran.
RADDATZ: So would you threaten unilateral air strikes to Iran?
NETANYAHU: I never talk about our military option or anyone else's. The United States says that it has a military option on the table. But equally -- and I think no less effective -- have been the crippling sanctions that have only been applied swine 2012, crippling financial and economic sanctions, especially on the oil sector. And with the drop in oil, those sanctions have become even more effective. That's what got Iran to the table in the first place. And then, once they're at the table, why let up on those sanctions? In fact, that's the time to increase the pressure and to get tomorrow what you can't get today.
—April 5 2015 on ABC's "This Week"
Member of the Knesset Yair Lapid
“There is no opposition and coalition when it comes to the Iranian nuclear issue.”
Members of the Knesset Yitzhak Herzog and Tzipi Livni
"We are entering a new phase in dealing with the Iranian nuclear threat...We must remember that the main part is yet to come and we must ensure that the final agreement will set the Iranian nuclear program back so as to prevent them from acquiring nuclear weapons and to ensure Israel's security interests."
—April 3, 2015, according to the press
The following are excerpted statements by Iranian officials on the nuclear framework that was announced by the world’s six major powers and Iran on April 2.
Centrifuges have to spin and peoples lives, economy have to move forward. Today we have gotten closer to that objective. #RouhaniLive— Hassan Rouhani (@HassanRouhani) April 3, 2015
2nd step taken last night laid out the #NuclearDeal framework, 3rd step would be the final agreement in June, & 4th step the implementation— Hassan Rouhani (@HassanRouhani) April 3, 2015
Sanctions were not imposed to bring Iran to table, their aim was to make Iran surrender. Claiming sanctions brought us to table is baseless.— Hassan Rouhani (@HassanRouhani) April 3, 2015
Always a believer in negotiations & dialogue. In fact, was negotiating on this very #nuclear case prior to sanctions.— Hassan Rouhani (@HassanRouhani) April 3, 2015
If other negotiating party fulfils promises, Iran will fulfil promises. If they choose different a path, other options will be available.— Hassan Rouhani (@HassanRouhani) April 3, 2015
Good evening ladies and gentleman. Let me again thank you all for having followed our work. We’ve done significant work. If we look back at recent history, and if we succeed, we’ve taken a major step, but we’re still some time away from reaching where we want to be. If we succeed, this will be one of the few cases where an issue is resolved through diplomatic means, an issue of significance. And that would require an approach that would concentrate on a non-zero sum outcome, a win-win outcome. And that was my country’s approach to this from the very beginning.
And that, I think, would be a major step forward. We have stopped a cycle that was not in the interest of anybody. Not in the interest of non-proliferation and not in the interest of anybody to one that will, in fact, be a gain for all parties concerned. And I hope that at the end of this process we will all show that true dialogue and engagement with dignity we can, in fact, resolve problems, open new horizons and move forward.
Iran/P5+1 Statement: "The EU will TERMINATE the implementation of ALL nuclear-related economic and financial sanctions". How about this?— Javad Zarif (@JZarif) April 2, 2015
Iran/5+1 Statement: "US will cease the application of ALL nuclear-related secondary economic and financial sanctions." Is this gradual?— Javad Zarif (@JZarif) April 2, 2015
The solutions are good for all, as they stand. There is no need to spin using "fact sheets" so early on.— Javad Zarif (@JZarif) April 2, 2015
Iran FM @Jzarif: You cannot speak with our people with language of force and sanctions— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: They first wanted to destroy Arak, mothball Fordow, demanded that we only keep 2-300 centrifuges.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @Jzarif: Kerry brought up an important point in post-understanding interview, saying "Iranians will not surrender"— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: We have never been, or will be, after a bomb. We are not after regional hegemony. We want good relations with our neighbors.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: We've never been after a bomb. Our Leader has fatwa against nukes. We closed touted & supposed bomb routes ourselves.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: We had capability to produce chemical weapons in 80s but inspectors certified that we never did so, even when Saddam gassed us— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: We didn't say one thing in negotiating room and another before media. We didn't produce "fact sheet".— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: When Americans say one thing here and another there, this is not sign of power. Time of force is over.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: There are still brackets in the text If not, we would have an agreement right now.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: Europeans complained to Americans about their claim that EU position on own sanctions was 'suspension' and not 'lifting'— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: In end, we'll have intl agreement, under Ch 7/Section 41 of UN Charter, will terminate previous resolutions & endorse deal— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: Maybe because of their own internal pressures, they (US) write "fact sheets" first and then negotiate.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: US says no fissile material at Fordow. But find one place where Americans mention that 1,000 centrifuges will remain at Fordow.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif (abt negotiation details): We know people have right to know, but don't want to cause hindrance to finalization of deal.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: We're not after being two-faced. We don't play games. We enter talks with seriousness. We don't say one thing, do another.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: We use word 'terminate' abt sanctions in Lausanne understanding bec Mr Kerry used suspend/lift interchangeable— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: On day of implementation of deal, IAEA will verify it, and that day, US will terminate oil, financial, bank sanctions— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: Senators' letter to us sought to drag us into domestic US politics. We will never be dragged into it.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: Until few weeks ago, mention of 'heavy water' in Iran was seen as blasphemy in West. Now look at the Lausanne understanding.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: I prefer not to discuss 'what if' in case of cheating on their side etc. Shouldn't start trust-building w/ mistrust.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: If US was all-powerful, it would not sit at negotiating table with us.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
FM @JZarif: They all said 'heavy water' means 'bomb. We told them that was not the case. Our heavy water reactor last thing to be accepted.— Iran Nuclear Energy (@nuclearenergyir) April 4, 2015
“What Iran wanted eventually took place despite the plans proposed by the U.S., China and Russia; the Arak Heavy Water Reactor will continue to produce plutonium."
—April 7, 2015 according to the press
Photo credit: President.ir