United States Institute of Peace

The Iran Primer

UN: Questions Remain on Nuclear Research

On February 19, the U.N. nuclear watchdog reported that Iran has yet to provide explanations regarding possible military dimensions of its nuclear program. Tehran was due to address two practical measures by late August, which could help determine if it carried out explosive tests and other research related to nuclear weapons production. But Iran has not fully cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on these and other outstanding issues, so the agency “remains concerned” about possible undisclosed activities with military dimensions.

The report, however, also showed that Iran has continued to fulfill its commitments under the Joint Plan of Action, the interim nuclear deal that went into effect in January 2014. Iran has not enriched uranium above the five percent level, and it has downblended or converted its stock of 20 percent enriched uranium. Uranium would need to be enriched to more than 90 percent for use in a weapon. Tehran also has not installed any major components on the Arak heavy water reactor. The following are excerpts from the report.
Main Developments
• The Director General held talks with the Foreign Minister of Iran, HE Mohammad Javad Zarif on 7 February 2015. They agreed on the importance of continuing the dialogue between the Agency and Iran at all levels. The Director General also stressed the need to resolve, as soon as possible, all outstanding issues related to Iran’s nuclear programme.
• Iran has not provided any explanations that enable the Agency to clarify the two outstanding practical measures, nor has it proposed any new practical measures in the next step of the Framework for Cooperation.
• The Agency has continued to undertake monitoring and verification in relation to the
nuclear-related measures set out in the Joint Plan of Action (JPA), as further extended.
• Since the JPA took effect, Iran has not enriched UF6 above 5% U-235 at any of its declared facilities and all of its stock of UF6 enriched up to 20% U-235 has been further processed through downblending or conversion into uranium oxide.
• Enrichment of UF6 up to 5% U-235 has continued at a rate of production similar to that indicated in the Director General’s previous reports. The amount of such nuclear material that remains in the form of UF6 enriched up to 5% U-235 is 7952.9 kg.
• No additional major components have been installed at the IR-40 Reactor and there has been no manufacture and testing of fuel for the reactor.
• Iran has continued to provide the Agency with managed access to centrifuge assembly workshops, centrifuge rotor production workshops and storage facilities.
Click here for the full report.

Khamenei: Iran Can Resist Sanctions

On February 18, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei urged Iranians to “resist sanctions” and not allow Western countries to place conditions on the country's nuclear program. In a public speech, Khamenei warned that Iran can impose sanctions on the West if necessary. “Iran has the world’s largest total reserves of oil and [natural] gas, the gas that the world and Europe are in need of,” he emphasized. The following are excerpts with a video posted on Khamenei’s quasi-official YouTube channel claiming that the U.S. government is “ignorant” about Iran and its negotiating position.

Sanctions and Nuclear Talks

“The enemy is using the lever of sanctions to the hilt and their goal is to stop our people's progress.”

“I believe that if we allow them [Western countries] to dictate to us on the nuclear issue, they will still keep the sanctions in place because what they are against is the very foundation of our revolution.”

“Serious work must take place. We can withstand the sanctions and neutralize and foil the enemy's goals. If we don't, the enemy would proceed and place conditions on our nuclear program and impose sanctions.”
“If sanctions are to be the way, the Iranian nation can also do it. A big collection of the world's oil and gas is in Iran so Iran if necessary can hold back on the gas that Europe and the world is so dependent on.”


“They [U.S. officials] wrote a letter to the Iranian foreign ministry promising not to support Daesh [Islamic State], not knowing that the evidence in photographs of their military assistance to Daesh was already in the hands of the revolutionary forces.”


The following video was also published on Khamenei’s YouTube channel on February 18.

*Translations via Reuters and Press TV

U.S. Calls for Release of Opposition Leaders

On February 14, the U.S. State Department called for the immediate release of 2009 presidential candidates and opposition leaders Mehdi Karroubi and Mir Hossein Mousavi. The former speaker of parliament and former prime minister, as well as Mousavi’s wife, have been under house arrest for four years for leading Green Movement protests after the disputed 2009 election. But they have not been formally charged with any crimes. The following is the full text of Spokesperson Jen Psaki’s statement.

Four years ago today, the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran placed former senior Iranian officials and 2009 presidential election candidates Mehdi Karroubi and Mir Hossein Mousavi, as well as Mousavi’s wife, women’s rights advocate Zahra Rahnavard, under house arrest without formally charging them with any crimes. We join the international community in condemning their continued detention and the harassment of their family members, and in calling for their immediate release.
Iran’s constitution, its laws, and its international obligations guarantee its citizens human rights and fundamental freedom and provide that no one shall be subject to arbitrary arrest or detention. The United States renews its call on every government, including the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, to respect their international obligations and to release all prisoners of conscience in their custody.

Rivals on Women & Minorities: ISIS v Iran

Cameron Glenn and Garrett Nada

The contrast between the Islamic State and the Islamic Republic is especially visible in their treatment of women and minorities, evident in ISIS documents and Iranian laws. On paper, both discriminate. But in Iran, women and ethnic or religious minorities generally enjoy greater rights and freedoms than either group living under ISIS control.
The Islamic State actively recruits women to move to the territories of Iraq and Syria it now controls. Ten percent of its recruits are reportedly female. Jihadist social media portray the Islamic State as an idyllic Islamic society and an alternative to life in the West. But media accounts and testimony of women who have escaped indicate women experience violence, rape, forced marriage, and general repression.
In the Islamic Republic, women play visible roles in politics, economic life, education, the professions and public life. Women hold seats in parliament, run their own businesses, attend universities and participate in (segregated) sports. Despite protections in the constitution, however, they face discrimination in many respects. The dress code is not as restrictive as under ISIS, and women do not need a male escort to leave their homes.
Women’s Rights and Role in Society
  The Islamic State
  The Islamic Republic of Iran
“Stability is in the house, inherently the khidr,or women’s quarters, and go out [from the house] only when necessary for the guidance of the mothers of the believers… blessings upon them.” - From an ISIS city charter
"Woman was created to populate the Earth just as man was. But, as God wanted it to be, she was made from Adam and for Adam. Beyond this, her creator ruled that there was no responsibility greater for her than that of being a wife to her husband." - From a manifesto on women released by the al Khansaa Brigade, translation via the Quilliam Foundation
In practice:
In ISIS territory, women’s freedoms are severely curtailed. They are encouraged to stay at home and are required to have a male escort to go out in public. In Raqqa, for example, women have reportedly been beaten or arrested for traveling outside their homes without a male chaperone.
Many young Syrian women in ISIS territories have also reportedly been forced to marry against their will. ISIS opened “marriage bureaus” to facilitate marriages between women and ISIS fighters. Militants have financial incentives to wed, as married fighters receive a $1,200 grant, a home, and fuel for heating.
Many women have been victims of violence and assault, and militants have executed women for adultery. ISIS stoned eight women to death in Raqqa alone in June 2014. After seizing Mosul in June 2014, ISIS militants reportedly went door-to-door assaulting women. The UN estimated in 2014 that ISIS forced 1,500 women, girls, and young boys into sexual slavery.
ISIS provides limited educational opportunities for young girls. It has established female-only religious schools, which teach students to memorize the Quran. ISIS enforces gender segregation in these schools, and prohibits male teachers from teaching girls.
ISIS is also unusual among jihadist groups in that it has an all-female morality police. The al Khansaa Brigade in Raqqa arrests and punishes other women for not abiding by ISIS’s strict rules on women’s behavior in society. Members of the brigade reportedly ask women questions to test their knowledge of prayer, fasting, and the hijab.
In January 2015, the brigade released a semi-official manifesto on the role of women in society. It encouraged women to stay at home and detailed three limited circumstances in which it was permissible for women to leave the house: jihad, studying the Quran, and serving as a doctor or teacher.
Article 20
“All citizens of the country, both men and women, equally enjoy the protection of the law and enjoy all human, political, economic, social, and cultural rights, in conformity with Islamic criteria."
Article 21
“The government must ensure the rights of women in all respects, in conformity with Islamic criteria, and accomplish the following goals:
“1. create a favorable environment for the growth of woman's personality and the restoration of her rights, both the material and intellectual;
“2 .the protection of mothers, particularly during pregnancy and childrearing, and the protection of children without guardians;
“3. establishing competent courts to protect and preserve the family;
4. the provision of special insurance for widows, and aged women and women without support;
5. the awarding of guardianship of children to worthy mothers, in order to protect the interests of the children, in the absence of a legal guardian.
In practice:
Despite protections outlined in the constitution, Iranian women face serious discrimination, especially in matters related to marriage, divorce, inheritance and child custody. A woman, regardless of her age, needs her male guardian’s consent for marriage. Women also require permission to obtain a passport and travel abroad.
Child marriage, though uncommon, is not illegal. The legal age of marriage is 13 for girls and 15 for boys. A judge can grant permission for children to marry at even younger ages.
Rape is illegal and subject to harsh penalties, including execution. But the government reportedly does not enforce the law effectively. Spousal rape is not addressed as sex within marriage is considered consensual.
Iran’s laws do not specifically prohibit domestic violence. Little data is available, but a 2011 University of Tehran study suggested that a woman was physically abused every nine seconds in Iran.
Women make up some 60 percent of university students. Yet quotas and restrictions limit subjects women can study, notably medicine and engineering. Only about 16 percent of the workforce is female, according to a U.N. estimate.
In the workplace, women reportedly earn about 61 percent as much money as men in similar jobs. The law does not require equal pay for equal work. Women must have a man’s consent to work outside the home.
Women serve in parliament and hold high positions in government ministries. But all of the approximately 30 women who registered as candidates for the 2013 presidential election were disqualified by the Guardian Council.


Women’s Dress Code
  The Islamic State
  The Islamic Republic of Iran
“To the honorable women: God is in decency and loose jackets and robes.” - From an ISIS city charter
“Women…are completely forbidden from showing their eyes [and wearing] open abayas that reveal colorful clothes worn underneath.”
“[Clothing] must not be decorated with beads, sequins, or anything else.”
“[Women] must not wear high heels.”
“Anyone who violates this will be penalized.”
- ISIS statement distributed in Deir Ezzor (translation via the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights)
In practice:
ISIS requires that women over the age of ten veil from head to toe when leaving the house. A November 2014 UN report said police regularly evaluate women’s clothing at multiple checkpoints in ISIS-held towns.
ISIS also inflicts harsh punishments on women who do not comply with dress requirements. ISIS documents do not detail punishments, but a woman in Mosul was reportedly sentenced to 40 lashes for violating the dress code. Men are also punished if ISIS determines that a woman within their family is not dressed properly.
Article 638- Anyone in public places and roads who openly commits a harām (sinful) act, in addition to the punishment provided for the act, shall be sentenced to two months’ imprisonment or up to 74 lashes; and if they commit an act that is not punishable but violates public prudency, they shall only be sentenced to ten days to two months’ imprisonment or up to 74 lashes.
“Women, who appear in public places and roads without wearing an Islamic hijab [veil], shall be sentenced to ten days to two months’ imprisonment or a fine of fifty thousand to five hundred Rials.
- Islamic Penal Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran –Book Five
In practice:
Iran lacks a clear definition of appropriate dress for women. Hijab literally means covering and could describe many different types of clothing. Some women wear traditional chadors, while others boldly express themselves. The prevalence of leggings led lawmakers to summon the interior minister in June 2014 to questioning on lax implementation of dress codes. Women risk being fined or sentenced to lashings based on the opinion of male and female members of the Basij militia who enforce the dress code on the street.
The dress code, however, does not prevent female athletes from participating in international competitions. Eight out of 53 of Iran’s competitors at the 2012 Olympics were female. Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has said Iranians should be proud of female athletes who make it to the medal podium wearing hijab. President Hassan Rouhani has congratulated female athletes on their accomplishments several times.  
Religious Minorities
ISIS has tried to cleanse its territory of people it deems unbelievers, including Shiites and non-Muslims. It has reportedly killed hundreds of Shiites and Yazidis, among others. The militants have also destroyed property belonging to minority groups, including ancient holy sites.
Iran has not attempted to wholesale convert, expel or kill its religious minorities. According to Iran’s interpretation of Islam, some minorities are considered “People of the Book,” and are thus entitled to protection and some autonomy. The constitution provides for representation of Armenians, Assyrian and Chaldean Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians. But Baha’is, Iran’s largest religious minority, are not protected under the law, are not allowed to practice their faith, and have faced persecution. Although minorities face discrimination from wider society and the government, they generally do not fear for their safety on a daily basis as minorities in the Islamic State do.
  The Islamic State
  The Islamic Republic of Iran
“Be very wary of allying with the Jews and Christians, and whoever has slipped by a word, then let him fear Allah, renew his faith, and repent from his deed. […] Even if he supported them just by a single word. He who aligns with them by a single word falls into apostasy– extreme apostasy.” - Issue # 4 of ISIS's "Dabiq" magazine
On Yazidis:
“Their creed is so deviant from the truth that even cross-worshipping Christians for ages considered them devil worshippers and Satanists.”
“Unlike the Jews and Christians, there was no room for jizyah payment. Also, their women could be enslaved unlike female apostates who the majority of the fuqahā’ say cannot be enslaved and can only be given an ultimatum to repent or face the sword. After capture, the Yazidi women and children were then divided according to the Sharī’ah amongst the fighters of the Islamic State who participated in the Sinjar operations.”  - Issue # 4 of ISIS's "Dabiq" magazine
In practice:
ISIS does not permit Christians to build new churches or display religious symbols in public places. There have also been reports of Christians being forced to convert to Islam or face execution. In Iraq, ISIS has destroyed Christian property and churches.
ISIS deals with other religious minorities even more harshly. Militants invaded Yazidi communities in Sinjar in August 2014, killing those who refused to convert, and driving tens of thousands from their homes. ISIS has also killed Shiites in newly captured territories. One ISIS member stated that the Islamic State’s territorial gains in 2014 “purged vast areas in Iraq and Syria from the filth of the Safavids,” referring to the sixteenth century Persian Shiite dynasty.
ISIS is also widely reported to kidnap, sell and rape women and children who are deemed unbelievers, most notably Yazidis. In late 2014, ISIS released a pamphlet attempting to justify the kidnapping, enslavement, and rape of non-Muslim women and children.
Article 12
“Other Islamic schools, including the Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki, Hanbali, and Zaydi, are to be accorded full respect, and their followers are free to act in accordance with their own jurisprudence in performing their religious rites.
Article 13
“Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian Iranians are the only recognized religious minorities, who, within the limits of the law, are free to perform their religious rites and ceremonies, and to act according to their own canon in matters of personal affairs and religious education.
Article 14
“In accordance with the sacred verse ("God doesn't forbid you to deal kindly and justly with those who have not fought against you because of your religion and who have not expelled you from your homes" [60:8]), the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran and all Muslims are duty-bound to treat non-Muslims in conformity with ethical norms and the principles of Islamic justice and equity, and to respect their human rights. This principle applies to all who refrain from engaging in conspiracy or activity against Islam and the Islamic Republic of Iran.
In practice:
Iran does not differentiate between Sunni and Shiite Muslims in reporting statistics. But Sunnis are thought to number between 4 and 8 million, or five to 10 percent of the population. Sunnis reportedly face discrimination and restrictions on building mosques and schools. Marginalization of Sunnis in Balochistan led to the formation of Jundallah, an armed separatist group, in the early 2000s. Sunnis in Iran are from several ethnicities, such as Baloch, Arab and Kurd.
Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians collectively make up less than one percent of Iran’s population. Yet they are guaranteed places in the 290-seat parliament proportionate to the size of their communities:
• Two seats for Armenian Christians,
• One for Assyrian and Chaldean Christians,
• One for Jews,
• One for Zoroastrians.
But minorities  reportedly still face discrimination in education, employment and property ownership. Authorities also sometimes charge them for moharebeh (enmity against God), “anti-Islamic propaganda” or threatening national security for their religious activities.
But Iran’s largest religious minority, the Baha’is, are not protected under the law or allowed to practice their faith. They reportedly number up to 350,000 and are considered apostates by the state.  
Other Christians not associated with an ethnic group, such as Protestants, are not represented in parliament. And conversion from Islam is punishable by death under the law. So proselytization is banned.
Online news media are welcome to republish original blog postings from this website in full, with a citation and link back to The Iran Primer website (www.iranprimer.com) as the original source. Any edits must be authorized by the author. Permission to reprint excerpts from The Iran Primer book should be directed to permissions@usip.org
Tags: ISIS

Rival Islamic Leaders: ISIS v Iran

Cameron Glenn and Garrett Nada

The caliph in the Islamic State and the Supreme Leader in Iran hold absolute authority in both political and religious realms with few, if any, real checks on their power. Both ISIS and Iran emphasize scholarship and piety as qualifications for their leaders. The current leaders both claim to be seyyeds, descendants of the Prophet Mohammed, which boosts their credentials. 
The Islamic State’s Abu Bakr al Baghdadi, has been active in jihadist groups since the 1990s. He assumed leadership of the Islamic State’s predecessor, the Islamic State in Iraq, in 2010. When the group renamed itself the Islamic State, Baghdadi took the title of caliph. In theory, he has total authority within ISIS territory, but his day-to-day responsibilities are unclear.  
The Islamic Republic of Iran’s current Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, succeeded late revolutionary leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in 1989. Khamenei has authority over Iran’s judicial, legislative and executive branches, as well as the military. His role is clearly defined in the constitution. Unlike Baghdadi, Khamenei frequently gives public addresses and appears on state television. The supreme leader’s office is active on social media networks, promoting his worldview in several languages.  
 Leadership Selection and Qualifications
  The Islamic State
  The Islamic Republic of Iran
On justification of Baghdadi’s leadership: “The scholar who practices what he preaches, the worshipper, the leader, the warrior, the reviver, descendent from the family of the Prophet, the slave of Allah, Ibrāhīm Ibn‘Awwād IbnIbrāhīm Ibn‘AlīIbnMuhammad al-Badrīal-Hāshimīal-Husaynīal-Qurashīby lineage, as-Sāmurrā’ī by birth and upbringing, al-Baghdādī by residence and scholarship. And he has accepted the bay’ah (pledge of allegiance). Thus, he is the imam and khalīfahfor the Muslims everywhere.” This is the Promise of Allah 
“Imamah (leadership) in religious affairs cannot be properly established unless the people of truth first achieve comprehensive political imamah over the lands and the people.” - Issue #1 of ISIS's "Dabiq" magazine 
“We will continue to obey the imam as long as he orders us to obey Ar-Rahman (the Most Merciful). But if he orders us to disobey Allah, then we won’t obey those orders.”- Issue #1 of ISIS's "Dabiq" magazine 
Article 109 
“Following are the essential qualifications and conditions for the Leader: 
•a. scholarship, as required for performing the functions of mufti in different fields of fiqh. 
•b. Justice and piety, as required for the leadership of the Islamic Ummah [nation]. 
•c. right political and social perspicacity, prudence, courage, administrative facilities and adequate capability for leadership. 
In case of multiplicity of persons fulfilling the above qualifications and conditions, the person possessing the better jurisprudential and political perspicacity will be given preference.” 

The Leaders

  The Islamic State
  The Islamic Republic of Iran
Abu Bakr al Baghdadi 
Baghdadi was born in Samarra in 1971, and reportedly received jihadist training in Afghanistan in the late 1990s, where he lived with Abu Musab al Zarqawi in Kabul. He fought with jihadists in Fallujah in the early 2000s after returning to Iraq, and was reportedly held at the U.S. detention facility Camp Bucca from February to December 2004. In 2010 he assumed leadership of ISIS, then called the Islamic State of Iraq. Little else is known of his background, but jihadist publications claim that he is from a religious family descended from noble tribes, and that he holds a PhD from Baghdad’s Islamic University.  
Baghdadi is known for avoiding the spotlight. There are only two known photos of him, and he reportedly conceals his identity with a bandanna from everyone outside his small inner circle.  
Baghdadi is the supreme political and religious leader in ISIS territory. The caliph has virtually unchecked authority, but in practice he relies on deputies like Abu Muslim al Turkemani, who oversees ISIS areas in Iraq, to manage administration of its territory. The Islamic State has ashuracouncil that can theoretically depose the caliph, but all members areappointed by Baghdadi. 
The leader has a strongly anti-Western world view, and in his speeches he has urged Muslims around the world to rise up and take revenge against injustices inflicted by “the Jews, the Crusaders, their allies...all being led by America and Russia.” 
Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei 
Born in 1939 to a traditional family, Ali Khamenei followed in his father’s footsteps and became a cleric. He joined the struggle against the monarchy in the 1960s and spentseveral years in prison before the 1979 revolution. 
Khamenei’s sacrifices for the Islamic revolution and close relationship with Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini helped him to attain power within the new government. He served as president for two terms from 1981 to 1989. When Khomeini died in 1989, he left no designated successor. Khamenei was selected by the Assembly of Experts as the second supreme leader, despite the objection of some senior clerics who felt he lacked the theological credentials.    
As supreme leader, Khamenei is Iran’s most powerful official. He wields constitutional authority or significant influence over all branches of the government, the military and the judiciary. His control over the 12-man Guardian Council, which vets all candidates for public office, enables him to influence who can and cannot run. For most of his tenure, Khamenei has preferred to stay out of the public eye.  
Khamenei still upholds the revolutionary and anti-Western narrative of the 1979 revolution. The United States and its allies, especially Israel, are trying to undermine Iran and the progress of Muslim nations, according to his worldview. 
Click here for more information on Khamenei.


The following are quotes by Baghdadi and Khamenei on key issues.

  The Islamic State
  The Islamic Republic of Iran
On Democracy 
“The Muslims today have a loud, thundering statement, and possess heavy boots. They have a statement that will cause the world to hear and understand the meaning of terrorism, and boots that will trample the idol of nationalism, destroy the idol of democracy and uncover its deviant nature.”
- July 1, 2014, in a speech
On Iran 
"Muslims' rights are forcibly seized in...Iran (by the rafidah* (shia)." 
"Terrorism is to worship Allah as He ordered you. Terrorism is to refuse humiliation, subjugation, and subordination (to the kuffar– infidels). Terrorism is for the Muslim to live as a Muslim, honorably with might and freedom. Terrorism is to insist upon your rights and not give them up...Terrorism does not include the extreme torture and degradation of Muslims in East Turkistan and Iran (by the rafidah), as well as preventing them from receiving their most basic rights." 
*"Rafidah" is a pejorative term for Shiites 
- July 1, 2014, in a speech
On the United States and Israel
“O ummah of Islam, indeed the world today has been divided into two camps and two trenches, with no third camp present: The camp of Islam and faith, and the camp of kufr (disbelief) and hypocrisy – the camp of the Muslims and the mujahidin everywhere, and the camp of the Jews, the crusaders, their allies, and with them the rest of the nations andreligions of kufr, all being led by America and Russia, and being mobilized by the Jews.” 
- July 1, 2014, in a speech
On Democracy 
“As for political and social issues, the higher aspect of this religious democracy is that we have had 32 elections during the 35 years from the beginning of our Revolution. Thirty two public elections have been held in this country. Is this a minor achievement? This is an exceptional phenomenon. Elections in the Islamic Republic are held with a high turnout - higher than the global average and in some cases, it is much higher.” 
–June 6, 2015 in a speech 
On ISIS and al Qaeda 
“This takfiri orientation - the thing that has emerged in Iraq, Syria and some other regional countries today and that confronts all Muslims, not just Shias - is the handicraft of colonialists themselves. They made something called alQaida and DAESH [ISIS] in order to confront the Islamic Republic and the movement of the Islamic Awakening. However, this product has become a burden for them.” 
“We see that the unreal effort which America and its allies are making in the region today under the name of confronting DAESH is, in fact, an effort for channeling enmities among Muslims more than it is an effort for nipping this evil movement in the bud. They try to pit Muslims against one another. Today, they have chosen this ignorant, prejudiced, fossilized and dependent group as the element for doing this. Otherwise, the goal is the same old goal.” 
– Sept. 13, 2014 in a speech 


On the United States and Israel

“If we are to find a regime in the world which is evil towards everyone and plots against everyone, that regime is the American regime. It is the United States of America which is evil towards everyone, as wherever it strides in, it does so with aggressiveness, arrogance, voracity and insolence.”
– Oct. 29, 
“[Western-style] freedom in the economy, political scene and moral issues…reflect terrible, bitter, heinous and in some cases abhorrent realities in the Western society. The results are discrimination, bullying, warmongering and double standards towards noble issues like human rights and democracy.”
 – Nov. 14, 2012 in a meeting with academics and teachers
“If the Zionist regime makes a wrong move, the Islamic Republic of Iran will raze Tel Aviv and Haifa to the ground.”
 – March 21, 2013 in an address to a crowd in Mashhad for Persian New Year
Online news media are welcome to republish original blog postings from this website in full, with a citation and link back to The Iran Primer website (www.iranprimer.com) as the original source. Any edits must be authorized by the author. Permission to reprint excerpts from The Iran Primer book should be directed to permissions@usip.org

Photo credit: Khamenei.ir via Facebook



Tags: ISIS

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