United States Institute of Peace

The Iran Primer

Implementation Day: Congress Reacts

The implementation of the nuclear deal between Iran and the world's six major powers prompted mixed reactions from U.S. lawmakers. House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi said that the United States is "on track for full implementation of this historic agreement and greater security and stability in the Middle East.” House Speaker Paul Ryan, however, emphasized that "A bipartisan majority in the House voted to reject this deal in the first place, and we will continue to do everything possible to prevent a nuclear Iran." In September 2015, Senate Democrats had blocked a Republican-led effort to reject the agreement.

Implementation Day was triggered on January 16, when the U.N. nuclear watchdog certified that Iran had fulfilled its obligations under the nuclear agreement. As a result, Iran is to receive relief from nuclear-related U.S., E.U. and U.N. sanctions. 

Implementation Day coincided with the release of four Iranian-Americans - Jason Rezaian, Amir Hekmati, Saeed Abedini, and Nosratollah Khosravi-Roodsari - as part of a prisoner swap with Iran. Most lawmakers welcomed the exchange, but Senator Ted Cruz (R-TX) accused the Obama administration of setting a "dangerous precedent." The following are statements from U.S. lawmakers.

Minority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV)
Member of the Select Committee on Intelligence
“I am pleased that Iran has taken the required steps under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. Once again, strong U.S. diplomacy has made the world safer, with Iran’s breakout time extended from a few months to a year.
“We must remain vigilant, however, to ensure that Iran complies with the agreement as we move forward, as well as other international laws and norms. I support the Administration’s decision to move forward with designations in response to Iran’s ballistic missile tests.
“I am also pleased that five Americans are finally being released after being unjustly held by the Iranian regime. My thoughts are with them as they return to their families. We must continue working to make sure all Americans held or disappeared in Iran are found and returned.‎”
—Jan. 17, 2016, in a statement
Minority Whip Dick Durbin (D-IL)
Member of the Appropriations Committee
Chris Murphy (D-CT)
Member of the Foreign Relations Committee
Bernie Sanders (I-VT)
Member of the Budget Committee
“I think what we’ve got to do is move as aggressively as we can to normalize relations with Iran.”
“Understanding that Iran’s behavior in so many ways is something that we disagree with, their support for terrorism, the anti-American rhetoric that we’re hearing from of their leadership is something that is not acceptable.”
“On the other hand, the fact that we’ve managed to reach an agreement, something that I’ve very strongly supported that prevents Iran from getting a nuclear weapon and we did that without going to war.”
“I think the goal has got to be as we’ve done with Cuba, to move in warm relations with a very powerful and important country in this world.”
 – Jan. 17, 2016, in a presidential debate
Bob Corker (R-TN)
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
Lindsay Graham (R-SC)
Member of the Armed Services Committee

Ted Cruz (R-TX)
Member of the Armed Services Committee



“I want to start with words of thanksgiving. We have just gotten the news that Pastor Saeed and three other Americans are apparently coming home from Iran. And I simply say praise God.”

“We don't know the details of the deal that is bringing them home. And then it may well be that there are some very problematic aspects to this deal. But at least this morning, I am giving thanks that Pastor Saeed is coming home.”

“It is far later than it should have been, but we will be glad to welcome him home with open arms.”
—Jan. 16, 2016, to reporters

Marco Rubio (R-FL)

Member of the Foreign Relations Committee and Select Committee on Intelligence

“Thankful that prayers have been answered and Pastor Saeed, Amir Hekmati, Jason Rezaian and another American will finally come home.”
“Iran needs to also help locate Floridian Robert Levinson. This hostage-taking must stop.”
“And we should not be involved in swaps. These things should never happen is my point.”
“The fact of the matter is that this tells us all that we need to know about the Iranian regime. That they take people hostage in order to gain concessions. And the fact that they can get away with it with this administration is one of the reasons.”
“I think this has created incentives for more governments to do this around the world.”
—Jan. 16, 2016, to reporters
Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)
“A nuclear-armed Iran is unacceptable to the United States and unacceptable to the world.  Thanks to the strong strategic leadership of President Obama and his Administration, including Secretary Kerry and Secretary Moniz, we have reached today's milestone, and are on track for full implementation of this historic agreement and greater security and stability in the Middle East and around the globe.”
– Jan. 16, 2016, in a statement 
“Iran's release of the five Americans is overdue but joyous news.  Throughout these Americans’ long and unjust captivity, we have seen the abiding strength and courage of their families.  We join in heartfelt celebration as they are finally reunited with their loved ones.
“Their release has been a key priority of President Obama.  Today is a credit to the strong diplomacy of the Administration, which has consistently pressed to secure these Americans’ freedom.  I also congratulate Congressmen Dan Kildee and Jared Huffman, who were unwavering in their leadership to bring these Americans home.  Now, the United States will continue to press the Iranians to help locate and safely return missing American Bob Levinson.
“The United States has held a strong line by only releasing individuals convicted of violating sanctions on Iran as our part of the prisoner swap.  While we have no illusions about the Iranian regime, we have once again seen the value of the enhanced diplomatic relationship created through our historic nuclear agreement.”
– Jan. 16, 2016, in a statement
Adam Schiff (D-CA)
Ranking Member of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence
Dan Kildee (D-MI)
Member of the Financial Services Committee
“Amir Hekmati is coming home. I am overcome with emotion that after four and a half years, this terrible ordeal is ending and the Hekmati family will soon be reunited with Amir. We have worked so hard to see this day happen. I am incredibly grateful to everyone, including my staff, who worked tirelessly to secure Amir’s release.
“I am grateful to President Obama, Secretary Kerry and the entire Administration for never giving up on Amir and the other Americans that were held in Iran. Their tireless work should be commended.
“Amir, I cannot wait to meet you for the first time, give you a big hug, and welcome you home.”
Congressman Dan Kildee represents the Amir Hekmati family in Congress.
– Jan. 17, 2016, in a statement
Speaker Paul Ryan (R-WI)
“Today, the Obama administration will begin lifting economic sanctions on the world’s leading state sponsor of terrorism. As the president himself has acknowledged, Iran is likely to use this cash infusion—more than $100 billion in total—to finance terrorists. This comes just weeks after Tehran's most recent illegal ballistic missile test, and just days after the IRGC detained ten American sailors. A bipartisan majority in the House voted to reject this deal in the first place, and we will continue to do everything possible to prevent a nuclear Iran."
– Jan. 16, 2016, in a statement
Mike Pompeo (R-KS)
Member of the Select Committee on Intelligence
Steve Israel (D-NY)
Member of the Appropriations Committee


Khamenei Responds to Rouhani Letter

On January 19, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei thanked President Hassan Rouhani and his negotiating team for protecting Iran’s interests while progressing on the nuclear issue. In a written response to a letter sent by Rouhani, Khamenei cited resistance and struggle against the West as key to the success of the nuclear agreement. Khamenei also emphasized that the “deception and breaching of commitments by arrogant states, particularly the United States of America, should not be ignored in this case or any other issue.” 

In a January 20 meeting with election officials, Khamenei said that the United States is deceitful. He said that Iranian officials should “retaliate” if the nuclear deal is breached. The following is the full text of his letter to Rouhani and excerpted remarks from his meeting with officials. 
Dear Dr. Rouhani, the Respected President
Greetings and felicitations,
I express my delight that the resistance of the great nation of Iran against the brutal sanctions and the endeavors of our nuclear scientists for the progress of the nuclear industry as well as the indefatigable attempts of the negotiators eventually forced the other side- some of whom are famous for animosity against the Iranian nation- to retreat and lift a part of the bullying sanctions. I thank you and the negotiating team as well as the respected [foreign] minister and all stakeholders. I hereby draw your attention to a few points:
First: Care should be taken that the other side fully abide by their commitments. Remarks made by some American politicians over the past few days are a source of mistrust. 
Second: All government officials should be notified that solving the economic problems of the country is tied to perpetual and wisely designed efforts at all sectors in line with the economy of resistance; moreover the lifting of the sanctions alone is not enough for boosting the country’s economy and people’s livelihood.  
Third: In public relations, it should be considered that for what has been gained over this deal, heavy prices have been paid.  Written and oral remarks which try to ignore this fact and display themselves as indebted to the Western side are not honest with the public opinion. 
Fourth: The achievement gained so far is also a result of resistance and struggle against the arrogant front. We should all consider it a great lesson for every other affairs and events in the Islamic Republic. 
Fifth: I emphasize once again that the deception and breaching of commitments by arrogant states particularly the United States of America should not be ignored in this case or any other issue.
I pray to the Almighty God for your and other officials’ success. 
Sayyid Ali Khamenei


Remarks from January 20 meeting with election officials


Rouhani Letter to Khamenei on Nuclear Deal

On January 18, President Hassan Rouhani penned a letter to Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei outlining 11 achievements resulting from the nuclear deal’s implementation. He hailed international acceptance of Iran’s uranium enrichment program, the release of foreign assets, sanctions reliefs and other benefits of the agreement. Rouhani attributed Iran’s success in negotiations to Iranians’ “resilience and resistance in face of all the pressures and shortages” as well as Khamenei’s guidance. Now Iran “can act as a key player and stabilizer who can guarantee peace and tranquility in the region,” he wrote. The following is the full text of Rouhani’s letter as published by his office.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful
“If Allah assists you, then there is none that can overcome you” (Holy Quran)
To the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution
Your Excellency Ayatollah Khamenei (His Blessings Be Durable and Continuous)
Hello and Greetings
Ample praise and thanks to the Almighty God who helped the great Iranian nation to become successful and proud in a difficult and historic examination and staggered the enemies of the country and system.
Hello and greetings to the Great Prophet and his Holy Family (Ahl al Bayt) who have always had attention to our beloved people.
Hello and greetings to Imam al-Mahdi (AS) who has always assisted this nation during its hard times.
Greetings to the Late Imam Khomeini (RA) who taught us the way to dignity, pride, and confidence.
Hello to all respected martyrs, especially great martyred nuclear scientists who taught us resistance by their self-sacrifice.
I am now honoured to tell Your Excellency and the resistant people of Iran that following the completion of Iran and 5+1 measures in putting their commitments in JCPOA into action, today, 16 January 2016, the JCPOA officially entered its executive phase.
Therefore, from today on and as the result of 12 years of resistance by the Iranian people against all threats and sanctions and under His Excellency’s courageous and brilliant leadership, the following achievements have been gained in nuclear field:
1. Iranian people’s strategic demand for establishing their absolute right to peaceful nuclear activity has been fulfilled and our nuclear program with trade and industry dimensions has been recognised and respected by the whole world.
2. Enrichment, as the most delicate and significant part of our country’s nuclear program, is going to continue on a developed path and, by a planned program, Iran will be included in the international producers of nuclear fuel.
3. Arak heavy water research reactor will be turned into a modern and advanced reactor with high international standards, in the framework of an international cooperation.
4. With more than 200 tonnes of yellow cake imported, Iran’s strategic reserves of uranium increased dramatically, for the first time after the Islamic Revolution.
5. By selling enriched uranium and the produced heavy water, the Islamic Republic of Iran will be included in the list of a few countries that export the sensitive materials.
6. Gates of international cooperation with our country’s peaceful nuclear program has been opened. This cooperation will start on fields such as construction of nuclear power plants, research reactors, fuel production, advanced research and development, nuclear fusion, nuclear medicine, nuclear safety, desalination, and protecting the environment.
Simultaneously, the following achievements in political, legal, and economic fields have also been gained:
7. Six 7th-chapter resolutions of the UN Security Council against Iran have been lifted. Currently, the only valid resolution is 2231 which will be automatically lifted after 10 years.
8. Twelve resolutions and five decisions by the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have been lifted. Currently, all the past issues and ambiguities regarding the country’s nuclear program have been settled and the only valid resolution is the recent one (2015/70) that is merely to monitor JCPOA implementation.
9. The imposed economic and financial sanctions by United Nations Security Council, European Union and the United States of America in various fields such as financial transfer, banking activities, swift, investment, insurance services, export credit, oil, gas, petrochemical, transportation, shipping, ports, trade of gold and other metals, automobiles and airplanes have been removed, thus the basis have been provided for Iran to strongly appear in the global economy, in order to use the opportunities in export markets and to have access to international capital markets, as well.
10. Those assets which have been frozen in relation with the Iranian nuclear activities have been released to let Iran for investment and job creation in the country.
11. The most important of all is that all the efforts of the enemies of Islam and Iran which have been done for many years to draw a distorted and horrific image of the Islamic Revolution are subject to fail, therefore a humanitarian and peaceful image of Iran is once again exhibited to the world and made the international community to admire the moral, intellectual and dignified character of your courageous offspring.
Therefore, I congratulate the very big success to Your Excellency; appreciate the brave Iranians nation for their patience and tolerance and ask all-Mighty Allah a reward of the Mujahidin (those who fight for the sake of Allah) in hereafter for those who have done great efforts to achieve this national victory through excellent management, prudence and patience.
I believe the impressive victory is the result of the inner and stable strength of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the light of Islamic Revolution led by the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution, the wining factor that disappointed the enemies of Islamic Revolution to further threaten it or to impose any sanctions against it and finally brought them to a negotiating table with Iran. This victory is also the result of brave Iranian's resilience and resistance in face of all the pressures and shortages. Finally, this victory was the result of nearly thirty months of protracted and breath-taking negotiations under the guidelines, support and heavenly wish of His highness.
Iranian nation have chosen a strategy 12 years ago to stand against bullying, monopolistic and greedy arrogant powers in order to attain its own rights, now the efforts come to fruition.
 Today the arrogant power's policies to put an end to the Iran's nuclear program, stop uranium enrichment, dismantle Arak heavy water reactor, close Fordow and stop research and development in Iran has failed and the failure made them bow down to the will of the Iranian people and recognize all of those restrictions which was imposed through UNSC resolutions against Iran and once again to respect Iranian true rights. It means the great Iranian nation resisted with dignity, negotiated with dignity and agreed with dignity.
The success of the Iranian people in this agreement have resulted not only joy and happiness of the friends of Islamic Revolution, but also a confusion, bewilderment and anger of those enemies of the Islamic Republic of Iran in and out of the region. The Islamic Republic of Iran is now backed by his powerful arm, with self-defensive, political, economic and diplomatic capabilities and can act as a key player and stabilizer who can guarantee peace and tranquility in the region, as well. Today, the regional and international authority of the Islamic Republic of Iran is established and stabilized through a well settlement of its nuclear issue and its ability to interact successfully with the six world powers. It is unfortunate that we see those who have spent billions of dollars and did their best to stop or defeat the negotiations or hinder the adoption and implementation JCPOA, are nowadays once again frightened and try to take any action to prevent a complete collapse of the wall of Iran phobia.
Now with the lift of unjust sanctions the way is clear for Iran’s economic growth through serious and effective execution of Resistive Economy policies. The government is fully determined that although lift of sanctions was necessary regarding elimination of oppression and fulfilling the rights of the Iranian nation that happened, therefore, the requirement for economic prosperity and improving livings and jobs, is paying attention to the Resistive Economy and people’s active presence in investment and working and innovation.
The government is determined to seriously and carefully monitor the other party’s fulfilment of commitments with Your Excellency’s guidance. It will also take necessary action in case of not fulfilling the commitments by the other side based on smart realism and away from any radical optimism. The government will also carefully plan and insist on the demands, interests, and real needs of the country, innovation in political, cultural, and economic relations during post-sanctions era. Another attempt by the government is thwarting any kind of attempt by enemies aimed at exploiting lead to infiltration.
Without a doubt, in this new phase of the history of the Islamic Revolution, the Leader’s guidance will enlighten the way for people and government, as it has been in the past.
Peace be upon you and the kindness and blessings of Allah,
Hassan Rouhani
President of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Click here to read Khamenei's response. 


Rouhani Hails Nuclear Deal Implementation

On January 17, President Hassan Rouhani welcomed implementation of the nuclear deal as a victory for Iran. “Today we have reached a landmark where our nuclear program is not a tool for sanctions and pressure from the side of enemies, but rather a new chapter in developing scientific, technological, trade, and economic relations,” he said in a televised press conference. Rouhani said the nuclear deal “opened new windows for engagement with the world.” He also posited that it would improve political and economic conditions across the region. Rouhani cited it as a proof that two parties can solve a dispute through reasoning. The following are excerpted remarks released by Rouhani’s office with tweets from his official account. 

“After 12 years resistance, sacrifice, and attempts by the nuclear scientists and martyrs, diplomats, lawyers, and political officials of the country, today we have reached a landmark where our nuclear program is not a tool for sanctions and pressure from the side of enemies, but rather a new chapter in developing scientific, technological, trade, and economic relations.”
“From today on, our traders and entrepreneurs can start their trade and export activities through legal and normal channels with more facilities.”
“Moreover, our banks can receive their needed monetary and banking services from banks from around the world and provide the people with them.”
“From today on, purchasing modern airplanes can be done by companies that want to provide people with services; this can result in more aerial safety for the great people of Iran.”
“From today on, the frozen assets which belong to the Iranian nation will be free to access for economic activities.”
“Iranian nation proved that the idea of constructive interaction is right and we can interact with the world to the benefit of our nation, while it is not to the detriment of others.”
“As the JCPOA [Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action] implemented, it became clear that our country is a great political and diplomatic power, while many others within the country, region, and world did not believe that our diplomats could sit across the negotiation table and defend the rights of people.”
“This success is the result of resistance, integrity, unity, and linkage between different branches and pillars of the system; if there was not national unity and people backed down under unjust pressure from others, today they would not taste the sweet taste of victory.”
“If there was no science, technology, and the art of diplomacy, we would not have succeeded. We sent our best and seasoned diplomats to the negotiation table and we saw they brought victory for our people.”
“During this very short time after the implementation of JCPOA, thousands of LCs have been opened in various banks across the globe and we can use them.”
“We are in conditions that because of stagnation and economic issues during the recent years we need capital to ensure economic growth in the country; JCPOA has removed the obstacles but we need more attempts and hard work to reach economic prosperity and create jobs for our youth.”
“In the path of securing out needs for capital and technology, the country is now ready to welcome entrepreneurs. We need to activate the private sector and involve it in investment to achieve economic growth.”
“Our economy is stable and the government has proved that it will fulfil its economic commitments.”
“Government and the private sector should join hands to attract more capital which is to the benefit of the country and creates jobs for the youth.”
“The current commitment is made by the government of US and these commitments will continue, regardless of which government comes to office.”
“The world has reached this conclusion that the path of sanctions is not correct and considers it as a lose-lose situation. Today everybody has realized that the Iranian nation is trustable and has not deviated from its nuclear programs; this is because the true face of our nation has been clearer to the world.”
“JCPOA can be used as a model for solving regional issues. JCPOA means that two parties which have discord with each other can solve this discord through reasoning.”
“We believe that with JCPOA implementation, both economic and political conditions of the region will improve and we can solve regional issues.”

“Saudi Arabia’s behavior does not comply with moral issues and even diplomatic norms. Saudi Arabia did not apologize the nations, people of which died in Mina. It is bombarding the people of Yemen for months now and this act is condemned from any fair point of view.” 


US Sanctions Iran Ballistic Missile Program

On January 17, the United States imposed new sanctions on 11 individuals and entities for supporting Iran’s ballistic missile program. The new measures follow a December report by U.N. experts that concluded that an Iranian test launch in October violated sanctions banning Iran from test firing missiles capable of delivering nuclear weapons. The following is the full text of a statement released by the U.S. Treasury.
The U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) today designated 11 entities and individuals involved in procurement on behalf of Iran’s ballistic missile program.  OFAC sanctioned Mabrooka Trading Co LLC (Mabrooka Trading) – based in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – and its China- and UAE-based network that have been involved in procuring goods for Iran’s ballistic missile program.  This network obfuscated the end user of sensitive goods for missile proliferation by using front companies in third countries to deceive foreign suppliers.  Also designated today are five Iranian individuals who have worked to procure ballistic missile components for Iran.  This action is consistent with the U.S. government’s commitment to continue targeting those who assist in Iran’s efforts to procure items for its ballistic missile program.
“Iran’s ballistic missile program poses a significant threat to regional and global security, and it will continue to be subject to international sanctions,” said Adam J. Szubin, acting Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence.  “We have consistently made clear that the United States will vigorously press sanctions against Iranian activities outside of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action – including those related to Iran’s support for terrorism, regional destabilization, human rights abuses, and ballistic missile program.”
Hossein Pournaghshband and his company, Mabrooka Trading, are being designated pursuant to Executive Order (E.O.) 13382 for having provided, or attempting to provide, financial, material, technological, or other support to Navid Composite Material Company (Navid Composite), an entity sanctioned in connection with Iran’s ballistic missile program.  Navid Composite was designated in December 2013 pursuant to E.O. 13382 as an Iran-based subsidiary of U.S.- and UN-designated Sanam Industrial Group, an entity sanctioned for its involvement in Iran's ballistic missile program.  At the time of its designation, Navid Composite was contracting with Asia-based entities to procure a carbon fiber production line in order to produce carbon fiber probably suitable for use in ballistic missile components.  Since at least early 2015, Pournaghshband used his company, Mabrooka Trading, to procure materials and other equipment for Navid Composite’s carbon fiber production plan.  Pournaghshband is also being designated todaypursuant to E.O. 13382 for having provided, or attempting to provide, financial, material, technological, or other support to Mabrooka Trading.
Chen Mingfu is being designated pursuant to E.O. 13382 for having provided, or attempting to provide, financial, material, technological, or other support to Navid Composite and Mabrooka Trading.  Anhui Land Group Co., Limited is also being designated pursuant to E.O. 13382 because it is owned or controlled by Mingfu and for having provided, or attempting to provide, financial, material, technological, or other support to Mabrooka Trading and Pournaghshband.  Mingfu brokered deals in support of Mabrooka Trading and Pournaghshband’s efforts to procure materials and equipment for Navid Composite’s carbon fiber production line.  Mingfu, using Hong Kong based-Anhui Land Group Co., Limited, provided logistical support to Mabrooka Trading and Navid Composite.
Candid General Trading is being designated pursuant to E.O. 13382 for having provided, or attempting to provide, financial, material, technological, or other support to Mabrooka Trading and Pournaghshband.  Rahim Reza Farghadani, the Managing Director of Candid General Trading, is also being designated pursuant to E.O. 13382 for acting for or on behalf of Candid General Trading.  Candid General Trading has conducted financial transactions for Mabrooka Trading and Pournaghshband for goods intended for Navid Composite.

Sayyed Javad Musavi is being designated today pursuant to E.O. 13382 because he provided or attempted to provide financial, material, technological, or other support for, or goods or services in support of, the Shahid Hemmat Industrial Group (SHIG).  SHIG was identified in the Annex to E.O. 13382 in June 2005 as a subsidiary of Iran’s Aerospace Industries Organization (AIO).  AIO, which is subordinate to Iran’s Ministry of Defense for Armed Forces Logistics (MODAFL), manages and coordinates Iran’s ballistic missile program.  Musavi is the SHIG commercial director and has worked directly with North Korean officials in Iran from UN- and U.S.-designated Korea Mining Development Trading Corporation (KOMID).  SHIG also coordinates KOMID shipments to Iran.  The shipments have included valves, electronics, and measuring equipment suitable for use in ground testing of liquid propellant ballistic missiles and space launch vehicles.  Within the past several years, Iranian missile technicians from SHIG traveled to North Korea to work on an 80-ton rocket booster being developed by the North Korean government.
Seyed Mirahmad Nooshin, Sayyed Medhi Farahi, and Seyed Mohammad Hashemi are also being designated today.  Nooshin, the Director of SHIG, is being designated pursuant to E.O. 13382 for acting or purporting to act for or on behalf of SHIG, and because he provided, or attempted to provide, financial, material, technological, or other support for, or goods or services in support of, SHIG.  Farahi, the current Deputy of MODAFL, and Hashemi, an official in MODAFL, are also being designated pursuant to E.O. 13382 for acting or purporting to act for or on behalf of MODAFL, and because they provided, or attempted to provide, financial, material, technological, or other support for, or goods or services in support of, MODAFL.  Farahi and Nooshin have been critical to the development of the 80-ton rocket booster, and both traveled to Pyongyang during contract negotiations.
Mehrdada Akhlaghi Ketabachi is being designated today for acting or purporting to act for or on behalf of AIO.  Ketabachi is currently the Director of AIO. He was previously designated in 2008 pursuant to E.O. 13382 for acting or purporting to act for or on behalf of Shahid Bakeri Industrial Group, which was identified in the Annex to E.O. 13382 in June 2005 and is involved in Iran’s missile program. 

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